Babarpur Mla Bibliography

On By In 1

The Complete Guide to MLA & Citations

What You’ll Find on This Guide:

This page provides an in-depth overview of MLA format. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for many different types of sources.

Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format.

How to Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar:

Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and analyzing information, collecting information, and repurposing information. Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research project, sharing the information you borrowed in an ethical way, and giving credit to the authors of the sources you used. Doing all of these things prevents plagiarism.

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is the act of using others’ information without giving credit or acknowledging them. There are many examples of plagiarism. Completely copying another individual’s work without providing credit to the original author is a very blatant example of plagiarism. Plagiarism also occurs when another individual’s idea or concept is passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is also plagiarism. Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Re-using a project or paper from another class or time and saying that it is new is plagiarism. One way to prevent plagiarism is to add citations in your project where appropriate.

What is a Citation?

A citation shows the reader or viewer of your project where you found your information. Citations are included in the body of a project when you add a quote into your project. Citations are also included in the body when you’re paraphrasing another individual’s information. These citations that are found in the body of a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations. These citations are found directly after the information that was borrowed and are very brief in order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project. Included in these brief citations is usually just the last name of the author and a page number or the year published. Scroll down below for an in-depth explanation and examples of in-text and parenthetical citations.

In-text and parenthetical citations provide us with a brief idea as to where you found your information, it doesn't include the title and other components. Look on the last page or part of a research project, where complete citations can be found in their entirety.

Complete citations are found on what is called an MLA Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography. All sources that were used to develop your research project are found on the Works Cited page. Complete citations are created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in the text, but also any sources that helped you develop your research project. Included in complete citations is the author’s name, the title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and a few other pieces of information.

Looking to create your citations in just a few clicks? Try Citation Machine’s MLA formatter! The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of your citations in just a few clicks. Click here to see more across the site. Also, check out this article to see MLA citation in the news.

Why Does it Matter?

Citing your sources is an extremely important component of your research project. It shows that you’re a responsible researcher. It also shows that you were able to locate appropriate and reputable sources that helped back up your thesis or claim. In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in print, there is a chance that others will use your research project in their own work!

Scroll down to find directions on how to create citations.

How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher

What is MLA format?

The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and literature related. They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and research paper layouts. In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and journal publications, and an annual conference.

What are citations?

The Modern Language Association is responsible for creating standards and guidelines on how to properly cite sources to prevent plagiarism. Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields. Liberal arts is a broad term used to describe a range of subjects including the humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and social science such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities specifically focuses on subjects related to languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics.

Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. While this citation style is most often used for the liberal arts and humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in MLA format.

Why do we use this style?

These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations was developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in the literature, language, and numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and understand the different components of a source. From looking at a citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of information.

Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didn’t all follow the same guidelines! Not only would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for readers to locate it themselves. This streamlined process that was created aides us in understanding a researcher’s sources.

How is the new version different than previous versions?

This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of years. Currently in its 8th edition, the 8th version is a citation style that is much different than the previous formatting style.

In the 7th version, which is the format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and scholars found it grueling to put their citations together. Why? Each source used a different citation structure. Researchers and scholars were required to look up the citation format that matched the type of source they used. So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and an e-book, all in one research project, they were required to look up how to cite each one of those sources because each was structured differently.

Now, with the new version of MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the same citation structure. The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and innovative ways of obtaining information. We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and articles. We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways. To make the process of creating citations easier for researchers and scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for all source types.

Other changes were made as well. This includes:

  • removing http:// and https:// from URLs.
  • not including the city where a source was published or the name of the publisher from some source types (such as newspapers).
  • the ability to use a screen name or username in place of an author’s full name.
  • using the abbreviations vol. and no., for volume and number, when including information from a periodical.

A Deeper Look at Citations

What do they look like?

There are two types of citations. There are regular or complete citations, which are found at the end of research projects. These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names and include all of the information necessary for readers to be able to locate the source themselves.

Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format:

Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title, roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range).

There are times when additional information is added into the regular citation.

Not sure how to transfer the information from your source into your citation? Confused about the term, “containers?” See below for information and complete explanations of each component of the citation.

The other type of citation, called an “in text citation,” is included in the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from another source. See the next section to find out how to create in text citations.

What are in text and parenthetical citations?

As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. We include these types of citations in the body of a project for readers to quickly gain an idea as to where we found the information.

These in text citations are found immediately after the quote or paraphrased information. They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular citation. The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of a project.

Here’s what a typical in text or parenthetical citation looks like:

Throughout the novel, the mother uses a vast amount of Chinese wisdom to explain the world and people’s temperaments. She states, “each person is made of five elements….Too much fire and you have a bad temper...too little wood and you bent too quickly...too much water and you flowed in too many directions” (Tan 31).

This specific in text citation, (Tan 31), is included so that the reader sees that we are quoting something from page 31 in Tan’s book. The complete, regular citation isn’t included in the main part of the project because it would be too distracting for the reader. We want them to focus on our work and research, not necessarily our sources.

If the reader would like to see the source’s full information, and possibly locate the source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to find the regular citation.

The regular citation, at the end of the project looks like this:

Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. Penguin, 1989, p. 31.

If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to place a paragraph number (use the abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. or secs.), or chapters (ch. or chs.). If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only include the author’s last name.

More About Quotations and How to Cite a Quote:

  • Use quotes from outside sources to help illustrate and expand on your own points, but the majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas.
  • Include the quote exactly as you found it. It is okay to pull and use only certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same.
  • It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing
  • The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes.

Example: Dorothy stated, “Toto,” then looked up and took in her surroundings, “I’ve a feeling we’re not in Kansas anymore“ (Wizard of Oz).

  • If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to make a block quote. Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from another source.
    • Start the quote on the next line, half an inch in from the left margin
    • Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote
    • Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source
    • If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the next paragraph with the same half inch indent
    • Add your in-text citation at the end of the block quote

Example:

While his parents sat there in surprise, Colton went onto say

“Cause I could see you,” Colon said matter-of-factly. “I went up and out of my body and I was looking down and I could see the doctor working on my body. And I saw you and Mommy. You were in a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and she was praying and talking on the phone” (Burpo xxi).

Confused about whether footnotes and endnotes should be used?

Footnotes and endnotes are not used in this style. Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in the body of your work. In addition, create full, or regular citations, and place them at the end of your project on the Works Cited list.

If you need help with in text and parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help. Citation Machine’s MLA citation generator is simple and easy to use!

Specific Components of a Citation

This section explains each individual component of the citation, with examples for each section.

Name of the Author

The author’s name is usually the first item listed in the citation. Author names start with the last name, then a comma is added, and then the author’s first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. A period closes this information.

Here are two examples of how an author’s name can be listed in a citation:

Twain, Mark.
Poe, Edgar Allan.

Wondering how to format the author’s name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in which they appear on the source. Place their names in this format:

First listed author’s Last Name, First name, and Second author’s First Name Last Name.

Here are two examples of how to cite two authors:

Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley.
Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox.

There are many times when three or more authors work together on a source. This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and textbooks.

To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format:

First listed author’s Last name, First name, et al.

As you can see, only include the first author’s name. The other authors are accounted for by using et al. In Latin, et al. is translated to “and others.” If using Citation Machine’s citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for you.

Here’s an example of a citation for three or more authors:

Warner, Ralph, et al. How to Buy a House in California. Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009.

Is there no author listed on your source? If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the author’s information from the citation and begin the citation with the title of the source.

Was the source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the author’s handle, username, or screen name.

Here is an example of how to cite a tweet:

@CarlaHayden. “I’m so honored to talk about digital access at @UMBCHumanities. We want to share the @libraryofcongress collection.” Twitter, 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521.

While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on someone other than the author, it is acceptable to place that person’s name first in the citation. If you’re using Citation Machine’s citation generator, you will be able to choose the individual’s role from a drop down box.

For example, let’s say that in your research project, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprio’s performances as an actor. You’re quoting a line from the movie, Titanic, in your project, and you’re creating a complete citation for it in the Works Cited list.

It is acceptable to show the reader that you’re focusing on Leonardo DiCaprio’s work by citing it like this in the MLA Works Cited list:

DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Titanic. Directed by James Cameron. Paramount, 1997.

Notice that when citing an individual other than the author, place the individual’s role after their name. In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer.

This is often done with edited books, too. Place the editor’s name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the word editor.

If you’re still confused about how to place the authors together in a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is easy to use and will create your citations in just a few clicks!

Titles and Containers

The titles are written as they are found on the source, and in title form, meaning the important words start with a capital.

Here’s an example of a title written properly:

Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks.

Wondering whether to place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not. If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in italics. If the title is part of a larger whole, place the title of the source in quotation marks and the source it sits in, in italics.

When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics.

However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics.

Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and their containers.

To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall, cite it as this:

Pink Floyd. The Wall. Columbia, 1979.

To cite one of the songs on Pink Floyd’s album, cite it as this:

Pink Floyd. “Another Brick in the Wall (Part I).” The Wall, Columbia, 1979, track 3.

To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this:

Colfer, Chris. The Land of Stories. Little Brown, 2016.

To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this:

Colfer, Chris. “Little Red Riding Hood.” The Land of Stories, Little Brown, 2016, pp. 58-65.

More About Containers:

From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container. Wondering how? When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal. The second container? It’s the database that the scholarly journal is found in. It is important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves.

When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix.

If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the second container is found at the end of the citation.

Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers:

Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title, roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Title of Second Container, roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location.

If the source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for each container.

Not all of the fields in the citation format above need to be included in your citation. In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves.

Here is an example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on is the other.

Zanetti, Francois. “Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris.” Technology and Culture, vol. 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530. Project Muse, muse.jhu.edu/article/520280.

If you’re still confused about containers, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help! MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machine’s website.

Other contributors

Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation.

To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the word by, and then their name in standard order.

If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased.

Here’s an example of a citation for a children’s book with the name of the illustrator included.

Rubin, Adam. Dragons Love Tacos. Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012.

The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation.

Versions

If the source that you’re citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is placed in the “versions” section of the citation.

When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed.

Here is an example of a citation with a specific edition:

Koger, Gregory. “Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State.” Congress Reconsidered, edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp. 221-236. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwC&lpg=PP1&dq=10th%20edition&pg=PR6#v=onepage&q=10th%20edition&f=false.

Numbers

Many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number, different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in the “numbers” section of the citation. This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the abbreviations vol. and no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation.

Publishers

In MLA format citing, it is important to include the name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves.

Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the publisher matches the name of the website. Furthermore, the name of the publisher is often excluded from the citation for second containers, since the publisher of the second container is not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the source’s content.

Publication dates

Publication dates are extremely important to include in citations. They allow the reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves.

Dates can be written in one of two ways. Researchers can write dates as:

Day Mo. Year
OR
Mo. Day, Year

Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations. If using the Citation Machine’s citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each citation.

While it isn’t necessary to include the full date for all source citations, use the amount of information that makes the most sense to help your readers understand and locate the source themselves.

Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date? Use the date that is most applicable to your research.

Location

The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns.

When MLA citing websites, make sure to remove the beginning of the URL (http:// or https://) as it is not necessary to include this information.

For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. Example: p. 6.
When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and then add the page numbers. Example: pp. 24-38.

Since the location is the final piece of the citation, place a period at the end.

Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help! Our site is simple (and fun!) to use.

Need some more help? There is further good information here

Common Citation Examples:

ALL sources use this format:

Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title, roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). *Title of Second Container, roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location.

*If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation.

Remember, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Check out our MLA Citation Machine page to learn more.

Books:

Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. Scholastic, 2008.

Chapter in an Edited Book:

Khan, Maryam. “Co-branding in the Restaurant Industry.” Managing Tourism and Hospitality Services: Theory and International Application. Edited by B. Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp. 73-82.

Print Scholarly Journal Articles:

Zak, Elizabeth. “Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of Augmented Reality and its Implications for the User in the Field of Library and Information Science.” Information Technology & Libraries, vol. 33, no. 3, 2014, pp. 23-50.

Online Scholarly Journal Articles:

Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. “Injuries in Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and Games.” Journal of Athletic Training, vol. 51. no. 2, Dec. 2016, p. 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic, i.ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCA&sw=w&u=nypl&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA484460772&it=r&asid=91b1a34dda62a32f4cd82c768e8a6a97.

How to Cite a Website:

When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website. They’re not actually citing the entire website.

Here is the most common way to cite a page on a website:

  • Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. If there isn’t an author listed, do not include this information in the citation. Start the citation with the title.
  • The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period.
  • Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma.
  • If the name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the title, do not include the publisher’s information in the citation.
  • The date the page or website was published comes next.
  • End the citation with the URL. When including the URL, remove http:// and https:// from the URL. Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to include it in the citation.

Last name, First name of author. “Title of Web Page.” Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL.

Rothfeld, Lindsay. “Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom.” Mashable, 3 Sept. 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH.

(When citing websites, remember to remove http:// and https:// from the URL.)

Print Newspaper Articles:

Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. “Medium Cool.” New York Observer, 2 Mar. 2015, pp. 14-17.

Online Newspaper Articles:

Skiba, Katherine. “Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on Monday.” Los Angeles Times, 24 Apr. 2017, www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-obama-speech-20170424-story.html.

Television Shows:

“Three Turkeys.” Modern Family, produced by Steven Levitan and Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov. 2014.

Movies:

Home Alone. Performance by Macaulay Culkin, directed by Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990.

YouTube Videos:

DJ Mag. “Skream b2B Solardo Live from Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami.” YouTube, 29 Mar. 2017, youtu.be/4Q448x-LHGg.

Tweets:

Gates, Melinda. “Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept France’s Legion of Honour award on behalf of all our foundation’s partners and grantees.” Twitter, 21 Apr. 2017, 2:36 p.m., twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200.

How to Cite an Image:

There are a variety of ways to cite an image. This section will show how to cite a digital image found on a website and an image in print

How to cite a digital image:

Use this structure to cite a digital image:

Last name, First name of the creator (if available). “Title or Description of the Image*. Title of the Website, Publisher**, Date published, URL.

*if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns.
**If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation.

Example:

“NFL Red Zone Usage & Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses.” RotoBaller, www.rotoballer.com/nfl-fantasy-football-cheat-sheet-draft-kit?src=bar.

Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Head to the site where the image “lives,” by clicking on the link that leads you to the website. Cite the image using the information from the original site.

How to cite an image in print:

Last name, First name of the creator (if available). "Title" or Description of the Image*. Title of the Container, such as a the Book Title, Magazine Title, etc., Publisher**, Date published, page or page range.

*if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns.

**If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation.

Example:

Photograph of Kate Middleton. Metro New York, 19 July 2017, p.17.

How to Cite a Magazine in Print:

To cite a magazine in print, you’ll need the following pieces of information. They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself:

  • The name of the magazine
  • The date the magazine was published
  • The title of the magazine article
  • The name of the author of the article
  • The page or page range the article is found on.

On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published. On the article itself, you can find the name of the article’s author(s), the title of the article, and the page or page range that the article is found on.

If the article appears on nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Example: 61+

Place the information in this format:

Last name, First name of the Article’s Author. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine, Date published, page range.

Example for the print magazine article above:

Gopnik, Adam. “A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited.” The New Yorker, 3 July 2017, pp. 61-66.

How to Cite an Essay

An essay is an analytic writing piece that is generally short in length (compared to books and journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of authors, the title of the essay (placed in quotation marks), the title of the book, collection, or site the essay is found on (in italics), the name of the editor (if there is one), the volume and issue number (if they are available), the publication date, and the location. The location can be either a page range or a URL.

Here is an MLA formatting example of how to cite an essay:

Hasen, Richard L. “Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to Make it Harder to Vote in North Carolina and Elsewhere.” Harvard Law Review Forum, vol. 125, no. 58, 7 Jan. 2014, harvardlawreview.org/2014/01/race-or-party-how-courts-should-think-about-republican-efforts-to-make-it-harder-to-vote-in-north-carolina-and-elsewhere/.

Click here for additional information on essays

How to Cite an Interview:

To cite interviews:

  • Place the name of the person being interviewed at the beginning of the citation, in the author’s position
  • The title or description of the interview comes next. If there isn’t a formal title, only use the word Interview as the title and do not place it in quotation marks or italics.
  • If found online or in a book, include the title of the website or book after the title.
  • After the title, it is acceptable to include the name of the interviewer. Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if it’s relevant to the research paper.
  • Include the publisher if it is a published interview and if it differs from any other information already found in the citation.
  • Include the date that the interview was either published or the date that the interview occurred.
  • If found online, include the URL. Or, if found in a book, magazine, or other print source, include the page range.

Here are two examples:

Gutman, Dan. “Interview with Children’s Author Dan Gutman.” The Washington Post, 9 Mar. 2011, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/08/AR2011030805468.html.

Lin, Brenda. Interview. By Michele Kirschenbaum. 17 July 2017.

How to Cite a PDF:

Check to see if the the PDF is written by an individual, set of authors, or an organization or company. If it is not written by an individual or a set of authors, use the name of the organization or company responsible for creating the PDF in place of the author’s name. Continue with the title of the PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the publisher (only include if the name of the publisher is different than the name of the author or the title), the publication date, and the location (usually a URL if found online).

Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the name of the publisher is the same name as the author.

MLA format example:

American Podiatric Medical Association. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly. apma.files.cms-plus.com/ProductPDFs/APMA_TodaysPodiatrist_Infographic_8.5x11.pdf.

Click here for more on PDFs

How to Cite a Textbook in Print:

To cite a full textbook in print, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information:

  • The name of the author(s) or editor(s)
  • The title of the textbook, including any subtitles
  • The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition)
  • The name of the publisher
  • The year the textbook was published

Place the pieces of information in this format:

Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Title of the Textbook. Version, Publisher, Year published.

If the textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at the beginning of the citation:

Last name, First name, editor.

Examples of how to cite a textbook in print:

Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: Review and Assessment. 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012.

Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015.

How to Cite a Chapter from a Textbook in Print:

To cite an individual chapter, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information:

  • The name of the author(s) of the individual chapter or section
  • The title of the individual chapter or section
  • The title of the textbook
  • The name of the editors of the textbook
  • The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition)
  • The name of the publisher
  • The year the textbook was published

Place the pieces of information in this format:

Last name, First name of the chapter author. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the Textbook, edited by First name Last name of editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range.

Example of how to cite a chapter from a textbook in print:

Riley, Simon C., and Michael J. Murphy. “Student Choice in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components.” Oxford Textbook of Medical Education, edited by Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp. 50-63.

How to Cite a Survey

Surveys can be found online or in print. Find the format below that matches the type of survey you’re attempting to cite.

To cite a survey found on a website, follow this structure:

Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of the Survey.” Title of the Website, Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, URL.

Example:

International Food Information Council Foundation. “Food Decision 2016: Food & Health Survey.” Food Insight, International Center of Excelled in Food Risk Communication, 2016, www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_%20FINAL_0.pdf.

To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure:

Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of Survey.” Title of Publication, Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is found on.

Don’t see your source type on this guide? Citation Machine’s citation generator can create your citations for you! Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in just a few clicks.

Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format.

Need some more help? There is further good information here

Check out this article to see it in the news.

How to Format and Write a Paper

When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow. The section that follows will answer the following questions: How to format an MLA paper, How to create papers, and How to write in MLA format. If you’re trying to learn how to format your essay, this section will help you too.

  • Use paper that is 8½-by-11 inch in size. This is the standard size for copier and printer paper
  • Use high quality paper
  • Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the paper
  • While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the margins of your paper by going to the “Page setup” section of your word processor. Click here for more on margins.

Which font is acceptable to use?

  • Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters.
  • Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options
  • Use 12 point size font

Should I double space the paper, including citations?

  • Double space the entire paper
  • There should be a double space between each piece of information in the heading
  • Place a double space between the heading and the title
  • Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the essay
  • The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. All citations are double spaced

Justification & Punctuation

  • Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or lies flush, against the left margin
  • New paragraphs should be indented half an inch from the left margin
    • Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin
    • Use the “tab” button on your keyboard to create an indent
  • Add one space after all punctuation marks

Heading & Title

  • Include a proper heading and title
    • The heading should include the following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins:
      • Your full name
      • Your teacher or professor’s name
      • The course number
      • Date
        • Dates in the heading and the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the entire paper
        • Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017
    • The title should be underneath the heading, centered in the middle of the page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters.

Page numbers

  • Number all pages, including the Works Cited page
    • Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an inch from the top margin and one inch from the right margin.
    • Include your last name to the left of the page number
      Example: Jacobson 4

Works Cited

  • The Works Cited list should be at the end of the paper, on its own page.
    • If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a hanging indent).
    • For more information on the Works Cited list, refer to “How to Make a Works Cited Page,” which is found below.

How to Create a Title Page:

According to the Modern Language Associatin’s official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is not necessary to create or include an individual title page at the beginning of a research project. Instead, follow the directions above, under “Heading & Title,” to create a proper heading. This heading is featured at the top of the first page of the research paper or research assignment.

If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for a title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page. You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university.

How to Make a Works Cited Page:

The MLA Works Cited page is generally found at the end of a research paper or project. It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for the research project. Follow these directions to format the Works Cited list to match the Modern Language Association’s guidelines.

  • The Works Cited list has its own page, at the end of a research project
  • Include the same running head as the rest of the project (Your last name and then the page number). The Works Cited List has the final page number for the project.
  • Name the page “Works Cited,” unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it as “Work Cited.”
  • The title of the page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is placed one inch from the top of the page, centered in the middle of the document.
  • Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and the first citation.
  • Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the first word in the title if the citation does not include the author’s name. Ignore A, An, and The if the title begins with these words.)
  • All citations begin flush against the left margin. If the citation is long in length, and rolls onto a second or third line, the lines below the first line are indented half an inch from the left margin. This is called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of a hanging indent is to make the citations easier to read.

Wai-Chung, Ho. “Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997.” Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, vol. 22, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2000, pp. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online, search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635.

  • Works Cited pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary.

WHAT IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY?

A bibliography, sometime incorrectly referred to as a Works Cited list, is a compilation of every source that was utilized (whether referenced in the paper or not) while researching material for a paper. Typically, a bibliography will include:

  • The complete name of the author.
  • The full title of any material researched.
  • The name and location of the publisher.
  • The date the material was published.
  • The exact page numbers of the source material.

How does a bibliography differ from a works cited list?

Generally speaking, a works cited list (or a reference page) references only the items that are actually cited in the text, not the items used in preparation for the creation of the paper. A bibliography, on the other hand, consists of everything cited in the paper and also all of the material used to prepare to create the paper.

WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY?

An annotated bibliography is, for all intents and purposes, identical to a standard bibliography with one distinct difference – the information noted is followed by a short description of the text, usefulness or quality of the source.

An annotated bibliography is an alphabetical list of books or articles for which you have added explanatory or critical notes. The annotation is usually written in a paragraph of about 150 words, in which you briefly describe the book or article cited, then add an evaluation and a critical comment of your own. An annotated bibliography differs from an abstract which is simply a summary of a piece of writing of about 150-250 words without critical evaluation.

See How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography.

WHY MUST YOU DO A BIBLIOGRAPHY?

The majority of scholars and professors will agree that a bibliography is one of the most important tools that can be included in research paper, text book, or the likes. The inclusion of a bibliography not only provides assurance that the material used in the creation of the paper is factual and relevant, but also offers credit to original sources and directs readers to the original source should more information be required.

Other reasons to include a bibliography in your work are:

1. To acknowledge and give credit to the sources of words, ideas, diagrams, illustrations, quotations borrowed, or any materials summarized or paraphrased.

2. To show that you are respectfully borrowing other people’s ideas, not stealing them, i.e. to prove that you are not plagiarizing.

3. To offer additional information to your readers who may wish to further pursue your topic.

4. To give readers an opportunity to check out your sources for accuracy. An honest bibliography inspires readers’ confidence in your writing.

5. Your teacher insists that you do a bibliography or you will get a lower grade.

Why is a Bibliography Important?

For anyone pursuing, or planning to pursue an academic career, the practice of writing a bibliography is perhaps one of the most relevant components of the research phase. Void of a bibliography, the entire paper is seemingly useless. Granted, this may come across as being extreme, but it should be known that any research completed without verification of the accuracy of facts is useless. There is not a teacher at any scholastic institution that is willing to accept a research paper or thesis without proper citation at face value. This is why it is so imperative to include a properly formatted bibliography page. But, what is a bibliography and how do you write one?

As mentioned earlier, a bibliography is a comprehensive list of every source used not only in the text, but also when researching the material for the paper. Each and every bibliographic reference MUST include:

The name of the author. In all citation formats, the name of the author is listed first. The bibliography will be listed in order of the surname of the author, alphabetically. The only exception to this will be in the Footnotes or for Turabian format which necessitates that the first name of the author be listed.

The full title of the source used or researched. The title is used to credit the specific source used, whether this be the title of a particular book, a news article, an advertisement, etc.

The name of the publisher. The name of the publisher, as well as the location, is important for validation purposes. For example, books published by larger and more prominent publishing houses are often seen as more trustworthy sources than those published by independent and lesser known sources.

The initial publication date. This information is listed in order to provide the reader with an insight into when the text was originally published. Some data has a shelf life and including the publication date will allow readers to determine if the source is dated or relevant.

One of the primary reasons to cite sources and to include a comprehensive bibliography is to provide verification that proper research has been conducted and that all claims made can be supported by facts. Anyone reading a thesis or research paper can quickly reference the citation noted in the bibliography and then seek out the original material to gather additional information if needed. It should be said that a thoroughly formatted bibliography adds to the authenticity of a thesis and garners much more positive overall impressions.

Anyone writing a thesis should invest time into carefully researching their topic and having facts to support the arguments made. These facts can then be supported in the bibliography.

WHAT MUST BE INCLUDED IN A BIBLIOGRAPHY?

1. AUTHOR

Ignore any titles, designations or degrees, etc. which appear before or after the name, e.g., The Honourable, Dr., Mr., Mrs., Ms., Rev., S.J., Esq., Ph.D., M.D., Q.C., etc. Exceptions are Jr. and Sr. Do include Jr. and Sr. because John Smith, Jr. and John Smith, Sr. are two different individuals. Include also I, II, III, etc. for the same reason.

Examples:

a) Last name, first name:

Berkel, Catharina van.
Christensen, Asger.
Wilson-Smith, Anthony.

b) Last name, first and middle names:

Price, David Robert James.

c) Last name, first name and middle initial:

Schwab, Charles R.

d) Last name, initial and middle name:

Holmes, A. William.

e) Last name, initials:

Meister, F.A.

f) Last name, first and middle names, Jr. or Sr. designation:

Davis, Benjamin Oliver, Jr.

g) Last name, first name, I, II, III, etc.:

Stilwell, William E., IV.

2. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

a) If the title on the front cover or spine of the book differs from the title on the title page, use the title on the title page for your citation.

b) UNDERLINE the title and subtitle of a book, magazine, journal, periodical, newspaper, or encyclopedia, e.g., Oops! What to Do When Things Go Wrong, Sports Illustrated, New York Times, Encyclopaedia Britannica.

c) If the title of a newspaper does not indicate the place of publication, add the name of the city or town after the title in square brackets, e.g. National Post [Toronto].

Sample, Ian. “Boy Mixes Saliva with Web Savvy to Locate Birth Father.” Globe and Mail [Toronto]

3 Nov. 2005: A1+.

Furuta, Aya. “Japan Races to Stay Ahead in Rice-Genome Research.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo]

5 June 2000: 1+.

d) DO NOT UNDERLINE the title and subtitle of an article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newspaper, or encyclopedia; put the title and subtitle between quotation marks:
Baker, Peter, and Susan B. Glasser. “No Deals with Terrorists: Putin.” Toronto Star

29 Oct. 2002: A1+.

Fields, Helen. “Virtual Healing.” U.S. News & World Report 18 Oct. 2004: 70.

Penny, Nicholas B. “Sculpture, The History of Western.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1998 ed.

e) CAPITALIZE the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, as well as all important words except for articles, prepositions, and conjunctions, e.g., Flash and XML: A Developer’s Guide, or The Red Count: The Life and Times of Harry Kessler.

f) Use LOWER CASE letters for conjunctions such as and, because, but, and however; for prepositions such as in, on, of, for, and to; as well as for articles: a, an, and the, unless they occur at the beginning of a title or subtitle, or are being used emphatically, e.g., “And Now for Something Completely Different: A Hedgehog Hospital,” “Court OKs Drug Tests for People on Welfare,” or “Why Winston Churchill Was The Man of The Hour.”

g) Separate the title from its subtitle with a COLON (:), e.g. “Belfast: A Warm Welcome Awaits.”

3. PLACE OF PUBLICATION – for Books Only

a) DO NOT use the name of a country, state, province, or county as a Place of Publication, e.g. do not list Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, Great Britain, United States of America, California, Ontario or Orange County as a place of publication.

b) Use only the name of a city or a town.

c) Choose the first city or town listed if more than one Place of Publication is indicated in the book.

d) It is not necessary to indicate the Place of Publication when citing articles from major encyclopedias, magazines, journals, or newspapers.

e) If the city is well known, it is not necessary to add the State or Province after it, e.g.:

Boston:
Chicago:
London:
New York:
Paris:
Tokyo:
Toronto:

f) If the city or town is not well known, or if there is a chance that the name of the city or town may create confusion, add the abbreviated letters for State, Province, or Territory after it for clarification. See Chapter 13. USA and Canada – Abbreviations of States, Provinces, and Territories. Example:

Austin, TX:
Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
London, ON:
Medicine Hat, AB:

g) Use “n.p.” to indicate that no place of publication is given.

You can find out more about how to use parenthetical references.

4. PUBLISHER – for Books Only

a) Be sure you write down the Publisher, NOT the Printer.

b) If a book has more than one publisher, not one publisher with multiple places of publication, list the publishers in the order given each with its corresponding year of publication, e.g.:

Conrad, Joseph. Lord Jim. 1920. New York: Doubleday; New York: Signet, 1981.

c) Shorten the Publisher’s name, e.g. use Macmillan, not Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Omit articles A, An, and The, skip descriptions such as Press, Publishers, etc. See Section 7.5 in the 6th ed. of the MLA Handbook for more details and examples.

d) No need to indicate Publisher for encyclopedias, magazines, journals, and newspapers.

e) If you cannot find the name of the publisher anywhere in the book, use “n.p.” to indicate there is no publisher listed.

5. DATE OF PUBLICATION

a) For a book, use the copyright year as the date of publication, e.g.: 2005, not ©2005 or Copyright 2005, i.e. do not draw the symbol © for copyright, or add the word Copyright in front of the year.

b) For a monthly or quarterly publication use month and year, or season and year. For the months May, June, and July, spell out the months. For all other months with five or more letters, use abbreviations: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec. Note that there is no period after the month. For instance, the period after Jan. is for the abbreviation of January only. See Abbreviations of Months of the Year, Days of the Week, and Other Time Abbreviations. If no months are stated, use Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter, etc. as given, e.g.:

Alternatives Journal Spring 2005.
Classroom Connect Dec. 2004/Jan. 2005.
Discover July 2004.
Scientific American May 2004.

c) For a weekly or daily publication use date, month, and year, e.g.:

Newsweek 29 Sept. 2004.

d) Use the most recent Copyright year if two or more years are listed, e.g., ©1988, 1990, 2005. Use 2005.

e) Do not confuse Date of Publication with Date of Printing, e.g., 7th Printing 2005, or Reprinted in 2005. These are not publication dates.

f) If you cannot find a publication date anywhere in the book, use “n.d.” to indicate there is “No Date” listed for this publication.

g) If there is no publication date, but you are able to find out from reliable sources the approximate date of publication, use [c. 2005] for circa 2005, or use [2005?]. Always use square brackets [ ] to indicate information that is not given but is supplied by you.

6. PAGE NUMBER(S)

a) Page numbers are not needed for a book, unless the citation comes from an article or essay in an anthology, i.e. a collection of works by different authors.

Example of a work in an anthology (page numbers are for the entire essay or piece of work):

Fish, Barry, and Les Kotzer. “Legals for Life.” Death and Taxes: Beating One of the

Two Certainties in Life. Ed. Jerry White. Toronto: Warwick, 1998. 32-56.

b) If there is no page number given, use “n. pag.”

(Works Cited example)

Schulz, Charles M. The Meditations of Linus. N.p.: Hallmark, 1967.

(Footnote or Endnote example)

1 Charles M. Schulz, The Meditations of Linus (N.p.: Hallmark, 1967) n. pag.

c) To cite a source with no author, no editor, no place of publication or publisher, no year of publication stated, but when you know where the book was published, follow this example:

Full View of Temples of Taiwan – Tracks of Pilgrims. [Taipei]: n.p., n.d.

d) Frequently, page numbers are not printed on some pages in magazines and journals. Where page numbers may be counted or guessed accurately, count the pages and indicate the page number or numbers.

e) If page numbers are not consecutive, it is not necessary to list all the page numbers on which the article is found. For example, if the article starts on page 10, continues on pages 12-13, and finishes on page 36, you need only to state 10+ as page numbers, not 10-36, and not 10, 12-13, 36.

Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly

Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+.

Above article starts on page 112, continues on pages 113 and 114, advertisement appears on page 115, article continues on page 116, and ends on page 117.

f) Treat page numbers given in Roman numerals as they are given if quoting sources from Foreword, Preface, Introduction, etc., write v-xii as printed and not 5-12. Normally, do not use Roman numerals for page numbers from the main part of the book where Arabic numbers are used. Also, do not use Roman numerals for encyclopedia volume numbers if Arabic numbers are given.

g) To cite an article from a well-known encyclopedia, such as Americana, Britannica, or World Book, you need not indicate the editor, place of publication, publisher, or number of volumes in the set. If there is an author, cite the author. If no author is stated, begin the citation with the title of the article. Underline the title of the encyclopedia and provide the year of edition, e.g.:

Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.

Do not confuse a subheading in a long article with the title of the article, i.e., do not use the subheading History or People as the title if the main title of the article is Germany.

Where the encyclopedia cited is not a well-known or familiar work, in addition to the author, title of article, and title of the encyclopedia, you must also indicate the editor, edition if available, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher, and year of publication, e.g.:
Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. D.L. Birchfield.
11 vols. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1997.

WRITING A BIBLIOGRAPHY IN MLA STYLE

Begin typing your list of cited sources flush to the left margin. Indent 5 spaces (or half an inch) for the second and subsequent lines of citation.

Some citations are short and may fit all on one line. Nothing is wrong with that.

Do not type author on one line, title on a second line, and publication information on a third line. Type all citation information continuously until you reach the end of the line. Indent the second line and continue with the citation. If the citation is very long, indent the third and subsequent lines.

1. Standard Format for a Book:

Author. Title: Subtitle. City or Town: Publisher, Year of Publication.

If a book has no author or editor stated, begin with the title. If the city or town is not commonly known, add the abbreviation for the State or Province.

If you are citing two or more books by the same author or editor, list the name of the author or editor in the first entry only, and use three hyphens to indicate that the following entry or entries have the same name. Do not use the three hyphens if a book is by two or more authors or is edited by two or more individuals.

Example:

Business: The Ultimate Resource. Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2002.

King, Stephen. Black House. New York: Random, 2001.

—. Dreamcatcher. New York: Scribner, 2001.

—. From a Buick 8: A Novel. New York: Simon, 2002.

Osen, Diane, ed. The Book That Changed My Life: Interviews with National

Book Award Winners and Finalists. New York: Modern, 2002.

2. Standard Format for a Magazine, Periodical, Journal, or Newspaper Article:

Author. “Title: Subtitle of Article.” Title of Magazine, Journal, or

Newspaper Day, Month, Year of Publication: Page Number(s).

Example:

Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88.

Nordland, Rod, Sami Yousafzai, and Babak Dehghanpisheh. “How Al Qaeda Slipped

Away.” Newsweek 19 Aug. 2002: 34-41.

Suhr, Jim. “Death Penalty for Juveniles Is Considered: High Court to Hear Missouri Case.”

Buffalo News 10 Oct. 2004: A12.

For other citation examples, see How to Write a Bibliography.

Note: It is generally not necessary to indicate volume and issue numbers for newspapers and magazines as the publication dates and pages make the articles easy to find. For scholarly journals, such as those published quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, it is advisable to indicate both volume and issue numbers when available. For a detailed discussion on citing articles and other publications in periodicals, please see Chapter 5.7 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

The bibliography is paramount when determining the overall quality and authenticity of a thesis. It also justifies the research conducted by the author. It is important to make use of current sources and to clearly understand how to cite each reference used. Never overlook the value of a bibliography, including one in your paper will prove that you have critical thinking skills and have read and understood the sources you’ve used to complete your assignment.

0 comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *