Scleroderma is a disorder of the connective tissue characterized by fibrosis of the skin, vascular abnormalities, and presence of auto-antibodies. It is a rare disease with a prevalence from 8 up to 30/100,000 inhabitants. Women are affected more frequently than men are, with a preponderance of 4:1 . The etiological agent is still unknown, even if previous findings evidence that the fibrotic process could be activated by lesional fibroblast activation [2,3,4].
It can be divided into two major groups: localized scleroderma /morphea and systemic sclerosis (SSc). The former can be classified into four main subtypes (plaque, bullous, linear, and deep) according to morphological and clinical presentation and is traditionally considered as a skin-limited disease whose systemic involvement is rare. The latter is classified into three categories including limited cutaneous SSc, diffuse cutaneous SSc, and overlap syndrome. SSc differs from localized scleroderma because it is accompanied by Raynaud’s phenomenon, acrosclerosis, and internal organ involvement [5,6]. The extracutaneous manifestations include gastrointestinal tract, heart, lungs and kidneys: esophageal dysmotility, restrictive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, arthralgia, myopathy, myocardiopathy, and progressive renal insufficiency can be observed . Raynaud’s phenomenon, i.e., vasospasm of fingers which results in change in color of fingertips as a response to cold or emotion, is often the initial presenting complaint occurring in more than 95% of SSc patients. Limited SSc is characterized by symmetric and progressive skin fibrosis of the distal upper extremities (fingers) whereas diffuse SSc patients often develop widespread, symmetrical fibrosis involving the proximal and distal extremities, trunk, and face [5,6,8].
Oral and facial tissues are often affected, presenting characteristic features. Most clinical manifestations begin with tongue rigidity and facial skin hardening, leading to a classic mask-like face, white thin lips, a sharp nose, and deep wrinkles [9,10]. Telangiectasia of facial skin and oral mucous membrane are produced from the vasospasm of the small vessels (Figure 1).
SSc patients also manifest periodontal involvement, demonstrated by increased pocket depths and gingival scores . The study by Pischon et al. demonstrates higher periodontal clinical attachment loss in SSc patients if compared with healthy people, indicating a possible relationship between SSc and periodontitis . The etiology of periodontal disease in SSc is unclear and several factors could contribute to periodontal involvement. An obliterative microvasculopathy was suggested . Wood et al.  indicated a relation with the reduced vascularity, with resulting tissue ischemia in scleroderma individuals. An association of reduced mouth opening and presence of periodontal disease is supposed  but not confirmed by Chu et al. . Xerostomia is a common finding with scleroderma patients, occurring as a result of fibrosis of the salivary glands. Dry-mouth symptoms can cause a high caries rate and an increased incidence of Candida infections . Xerostomia could promote dental plaque accumulation and a reduced manual dexterity could be a cofactor in periodontal involvement in SSc patients.
The tongue can also become rigid so that speech and swallowing become difficult .
The main oral manifestation of SSc is microstomia (reduction of the oral opening), due to the sclerosis of perioral soft tissue (Figure 2). Clinically, it may impair social relationships, mastication, reduction of the mandibular movements, and proper oral hygiene. Consequently, a higher incidence of oral diseases such as caries, periodontal diseases or other type of oral infections is detected  and dental treatment could be more difficult or sometimes impracticable due to limited mouth opening [14,18].
Mandibular bone resorption is more often observed in patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and causes marked facial sclerotic involvement and limitation in mouth opening [19,20]. Systematic radiographic screening of different groups of SSc patients showed a resorption incidence of the mandible of 20%–33% of the examined mandibles . In 1959, Taveras noted radiographic evidence of bone resorption of the angles of the mandible and similar areas of resorption have been reported to affect the coronoid processes and the zygomatic arches at the sites of the muscle attachments. This was explained by muscle contracture secondary to fibrotic changes . However, the current hypothesis suggests that bone resorption could be caused by a multifactorial process including microvasculopathy and pressure ischaemia, secondary to thickening skin and muscle atrophy. Moreover, atrophic and fibrotic modifications of the synovia may also influence the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in course of SSc .
Previous studies investigated the difficulty in mandibular movements in SSc patients. Nagy observed that the interincisal distance was significantly decreased in systemic sclerosis patients when compared with healthy controls  (Figure 3).
Marmary found that the majority of SSc patients revealed limitation in mouth opening .
Only a few studies reported a complete analysis of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) [18,25].
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of both oral symptoms and manifestations and TMD symptoms (TMDs) and signs in SSc patients compared with healthy people, thus giving a complete survey of facial involvement in course of scleroderma.
2.1. Characteristics of SSc Patients and Controls
Patients’ age ranged between 24 and 80 years, 92.5% were female and 7.5% were male in both groups. The two groups, matched for age and sex, results were similar for sociodemographic aspects, except occupation (χ2 = 11.036 p = 0.026). Among SSc patients housewives were prominent, while among controls office workers were prominent (Table 1).
The prevalent form of disease was the diffuse one, found in the 82.5% of SSc patients, the age at diagnosis varied between 8 and 74 years (mean = 44 years, SD = 14.24) with a disease mean duration of 12 years (SD = 8.39); 60% of patients had the pathology for over 10 years (Table 2).
Clinical characteristics of SSc patients and controls are reported in Table 3.
The principal drugs for SSc patients and controls are reported in Table 4.
2.2. SSc Oral Symptoms
The assessment of referred SSc oral symptoms, obtained from written responses to the questionnaire, revealed that the patients with SSc complained more frequently than controls: 78.8% of the SSc patients complained of one or more symptoms compared to 28.7% of the controls (χ2 = 40.23 p < 0.001). Statistically significant differences were found between two groups for each oral symptom considered as listed in Table 5.
2.3. TMD Symptoms
The assessment of TMDs showed that 92.5% of the patients with SSc and 75.0% of the healthy controls complained of one or more symptoms. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (χ2 = 8.012 p = 0.005).
In the SSc group, muscle pain on chewing, the sensation of a stuck or locked jaw, and arthralgia were the most commonly reported symptoms. In the control group tenderness or stiffness in the neck and shoulders were the major complaints.
Myofascial pain (MP) evoked by palpation was detected in 91.2% SSc patients and 83.8% of controls, revealing no significant difference between the two groups (χ2 = 2.057 p = 0.151). Data collected for each muscle couple were reported in Table 6.
2.4. SSc Oral Signs
At the clinical examination, oral signs correlated with SSc were more frequent in the study group than in the control one; 98.8% of SSc patients have at least one oral sign compared with 45% of controls (χ2 = 54.54 p < 0.001). Statistically significant differences were observed for each sign except for fibrous tongue. Table 7 lists the main findings collected from the oral examination.
2.5. TMJ Signs
At the clinical examination, restricted movements (RM) were more frequent in the SSc group than in the healthy controls. In particular, 85% of SSc patients showed restricted opening versus 20.0% of controls (χ2 = 67.77 p < 0.001); 81.2% of SSc showed reduced right lateral excursion versus 50% of controls (χ2 = 17.316 p < 0.001); 73.8% of SSc showed limited left lateral excursion versus 53.8% of controls (χ2 = 6.924 p = 0.009); and 73.8% of SSc had narrow protrusion versus 56.2% of controls (χ2 = 5.385 p = 0.02).
Measurement data related to movements were reported in Table 8.
Evidence of bruxism was observed in 81.2% of patients with SSc and 75% of controls, with no significant difference between the two groups (χ2 = 0.914 p = 0.339).
The prevalence of opening derangement (OD) was higher in controls (53.8%) than in SSc patients (43.8%). although this difference was not statistically significant (χ2 = 1.6 p = 0.206). Finally, no differences were recorded for sounds of temporomandibular joint (TMJs) in the two groups: this sign was observed in 50% of SSc patients and 50% of controls (χ2 = 0 p = 1).
To our knowledge, the present study is the only report that analyzed and evaluated the prevalence of sign and symptoms of both mucosal damage and temporomandibular dysfunction in SSc compared with healthy controls with a cohort size larger than other studies investigating TMD and SSc (80 SSc patients versus 35 patients in Ferreira et al. , 14 SSc patients in Aliko et al. , and 68 SSc patients in Matarese et al. ).
About sociodemographic characteristics, unemployed and housewives were most represented in SSc patients, while office workers were most represented among controls (Table 1). These data could be explained with a progressive physical disability in SSc group, leading to a severe impairment of patients’ quality of life to varying degrees, with troubles in catching and even in writing. Also psychological aspects, such as self non-acceptance, can damage social life.
An interesting finding in patients’ history (Table 3) is osteoporosis, affecting 19 (23.8%) SSc patients versus 1 (1.2%) of control group. Consequently, a higher rate of SSc patients (17.1%) takes bisphosphonates (Table 4). However, a long-term antiresorptive therapy could cause, as a side effect, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) after oral surgery. Therefore, in daily routine, dentists should consider SSc patients a high potential risk category.
The SSc group showed more symptoms and signs of mucosal and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement compared with the control group.
Sicca symptoms are thought to be a frequent complaint associated with SSc, although little is known about how often they occur. Xerostomia was often complained by SSc patients recruited for the present study (42%), showing a higher prevalence if compared with findings by Bajraktari et al., who recorded this oral manifestation in 32% of SSc patients  and with findings by Weisman et al., who detected features of sicca syndrome in 12% of SSc patients . Wood recorded xerostomia in 70% of the SSc patients and associated it with an increased frequency of dental caries .
According to Avouac et al. , the main cause of sicca syndrome in SSc appears to be glandular fibrosis, rather than lymphocytic sialadenitis associated with Sjögren’s syndrome: on 78 biopsy specimens obtained from patients with subjective symptoms of xerostomia, 23% of these cases were explained by Sjögren’s syndrome and 58% were explained by glandular fibrosis. According to Vincent et al., xerostomia was considered more discomforting (mean VAS = 3.8) than decreased mouth opening (mean VAS = 2.6) and was significantly associated with the limited cutaneous form .
Dysphagia was reported by 51.3% of SSc patients collected in this study and it was the most frequent otolaryngologic symptom complained by SSc patients compared with controls. As assessed in a study by Weisman et al., where 39% of SSc patients showed this symptom, radiographically detected esophageal abnormalities could be suggestive of dysphagia, though they did not always record this complaint even with an abnormal esophagram. It could be caused by a loss of contractile power of the esophagus, alterations of esophageal mucosa, abnormalities of the tongue and pharynx .
The present study, gathering information on both remote and recent anamnesis, detects a higher prevalence of TMDs in the SSc group (92.5%) compared to the respective outcomes in healthy patients (75.0%). These data differ from ones by Matarese et al.  that recorded TMDs in 74.1% of their 27 SSc patients.
An etiological hypothesis of the high prevalence of TMD in SSc could insist in the disease duration. In this work, in fact, in the 60% of SSc group the disease diagnosis dates back more than 10 years (Table 2).
MP evoked by palpation was reported by 92.5% of SSc patients in the present work, with a remarkably higher prevalence if compared with Matarese findings (55.6%) . A mild, progressive myositis can lead to different degrees of atrophy and fibrotic muscle retraction when an inflammatory reaction occurs: this could explain the increased frequency of complaints in the SSc group .
TMJs were detected in the same proportion both in SSc group (45%) and controls (50%). Different findings were obtained by Matarese et al. , who recorded TMJs in 63% of SSc patients and 7.1% of their controls. Such a difference could be explained with a diverse selection of controls. In the present study, the sample was selected from people attending a dental clinic, who would report TMD more frequently than the general population.
The main expected finding was a more severe restriction on mandibular movements in SSc patients than in controls. In this work, RM were detected in 80% of SSc group, in accordance to Marmary’s results . Jaw mobility score was recorded by Ferreira et al.: they observed that none of the SSc patients showed normal width in jaw movements and in particular 77.1% of SSc patients had a severe jaw mobility impairment (all measures were lower than mean values) . On the other side, in a work by Weisman, only 28% of patients had altered kinematics . In this last case, this parameter was recorded as a referred symptom and not as a sign detected by a clinician.
Oberndorf CP. Slips of the tongue and pen. J Abnorm Psychol. 1914;8(6):378–84. PMID: X-1.
Special mental conditions. Psychol Bull. 1925;22(5):291–4. PMID: X-1.
Jidigian Y, Bickers W. Transplantation of the ureters into the rectosigmoid. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1947 Jul;85(1):30–4. X-1. [PubMed: 20249243]
Phillips JC. Rehabilitation in a case of manic depressive reaction with a speech defect. Case Reports in Clinical Psychology. 1951;2(4):50–2. PMID: X-3.
Masters F, Georgiade N, Horton C, et al. The use of interlocking Z's in the repair of incomplete clefts of the lip and secondary lip deformities. Plast Reconstr Surg (1946) 1954 Oct;14(4):287–92. X-1. [PubMed: 13215109]
Beers MD, Pruzansky S. The growth of the head of an infant with mandibular micrognathia, glossoptosis and cleft palate following the Beverly Douglas operation. Plast Reconstr Surg (1946) 1955 Sep;16(3):189–93. X-1. [PubMed: 13266547]
Knight PF. Anesthesia in recurring post-tonsiliectomy haemorrhage due to macroglossia; a case report. Br J Anaesth. 1958 Feb;30(2):83–4. X-1. [PubMed: 13523030]
Watt OM. Lingual thyroid; complicating general anaesthesia. Anaesthesia. 1959 Apr;14(2):162–7. X-1. [PubMed: 13637370]
Perzik SL. Early management in extensive cervical cystic hygroma and macroglossia. Arch Surg. 1960 Mar;80:460–3. X-1. [PubMed: 14432102]
Kokic A, Gazabatt C. Dissection of labial frenum: a new technic. J Oral Surg Anesth Hosp Dent Serv. 1961 Jul;19:326–8. X-1. [PubMed: 13757671]
Moyson F. A plea against tracheostomy in the Pierre-Robin syndrome. Br J Plast Surg. 1961 Oct;14:187–9. X-1. [PubMed: 14476768]
Goldberg MH, Eckblom RH. The treatment of the Pierre Robin syndrome. Pediatrics. 1962 Sep;30:450–8. X-1. [PubMed: 13899709]
Gorlin RJ, Psaume J. Orodigitofacial dysostosis--a new syndrome. A study of 22 cases. J Pediatr. 1962 Oct;61:520–30. X-1. [PubMed: 13900550]
Costich ER. The role of oral surgery in preventive dentistry. Dent Clin North Am. 1965 Jul;25:475–83. X-1. [PubMed: 14290101]
Costich ER. The role of oral surgery in preventive dentistry. Dent Clin North Am. 1965 Jul;25:475–83. X-1. [PubMed: 14290101]
Marge M. Speech difficulties associated with dental anomalies in children. ASDC J Dent Child. 1965;32:82–9. X-1. [PubMed: 14285595]
Olin WH, Huffman WC, Schweiger JW. Congenital pits of the lower lip associated with cleft lip and palate. A case report. J Iowa Med Soc. 1965 Dec;55(12):698–701. X-1. [PubMed: 5840072]
Risch F, Boden ES, Mindlin H, et al. The relationship of dental hypoplasia to epilepsy in adults. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1965 Feb;19:269–75. X-1. [PubMed: 14232608]
Combs JT, Grunt JA, Brandt IK. New syndrome of neonatal hypoglycemia. Association with visceromegaly, macroglossia, microcephaly and abnormal umbilicus. N Engl J Med. 1966 Aug 4;275(5):236–43. X-1. [PubMed: 5943267]
Degering CI. Prenatal therapeutic radiation. Preliminary report of two cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1966 Apr;21(4):473–7. X-1. [PubMed: 5218152]
DesEnfants JA. The abnormal labial frenum. J Mo Dent Assoc. 1966 Oct;46(8):9–12. X-1. [PubMed: 5223623]
Dewel BF. The labial frenum, midline diastema, and palatine papilla: a clinical analysis. Dent Clin North Am. 1966 Mar:175–84. X-1. [PubMed: 5216396]
Garfinkle VI. Surgery for prosthetics. J Oral Surg. 1966 May;24(3):209–17. X-1. [PubMed: 5325394]
Gibson II. Macroglossia. Gerontol Clin (Basel) 1966;8(4):202–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5964997]
Hale ML. Pediatric exodontia. Dent Clin North Am. 1966 Jul:405–19. X-1. [PubMed: 4222774]
Hawkinson RT. Diagnosis and preoperative planning for the surgical correction of mandibular prognathism. J Prosthet Dent. 1966 Mar-Apr;16(2):351–70. X-1. [PubMed: 5217118]
Kramer GM, Kohn JD. A classification of periodontal surgery: An approach based on tissue coverage. Periodontics. 1966 Mar-Apr;4(2):80–9. X-1. [PubMed: 5217828]
Monroe CW. Midline cleft of the lower lip, mandible and tongue with flexion contracture of the neck: case report and review of the literature. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1966 Oct;38(4):312–9. X-1. [PubMed: 5926987]
Nabers JM. Extension of the vestibular fornix utilizing a gingival graft--case history. Periodontics. 1966 Mar-Apr;4(2):77–9. X-1. [PubMed: 5217827]
Tucker CC, Finley SC, Tucker ES, et al. Oral-facial-digital syndrome, with polycystic kidneys and liver: pathological and cytogenetic studies. J Med Genet. 1966 Jun;3(2):145–7. X-1. [PMC free article: PMC1012919] [PubMed: 5963210]
Bodner BN. Dentoalveolar surgery. Dent Dig. 1967 Jan;73(1):12–5. X-1. [PubMed: 5225133]
Edlan A. The prevention of inflammatory damage to the periodontium in children. Int Dent J. 1967 Jun;17(2):329–38. X-1. [PubMed: 5233871]
Egyedi P. Some aspects of pre-operative planning in the correction of deformities of the jaws. Trans Int Conf Oral Surg. 1967:62–8. X-1. [PubMed: 5237111]
Gardiner JH. Midline spaces. Dent Pract Dent Rec. 1967 Apr;17(8):287–97. X-1. [PubMed: 5228693]
Gonzalez-Ulloa M, Stevens E. The tent-pole mechanics in the correction of the retractive syndrome of the middle third of the face. Klin Med Osterr Z Wiss Prakt Med. 1967;22(11):483–4. X-1. [PubMed: 5631401]
Hanson ML. Some suggestions for more effectiive therapy for tongue thrust. J Speech Hear Disord. 1967;32(1):75–9. PMID: X-1, X-2, X-3. [PubMed: 6017929]
Howe GL. Soft tissue plastic operations in the maxilla. Trans Int Conf Oral Surg. 1967:192–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5237058]
Irving IM. Exomphalos with macroglossia: a study of eleven cases. J Pediatr Surg. 1967 Dec;2(6):499–507. X-1. [PubMed: 4865835]
James GA. Clinical implications of a follow-up study after fraenectomy. Dent Pract Dent Rec. 1967 Apr;17(8):299–305. X-1. [PubMed: 5228694]
Janebova M. Cortical spreading depression as a means of analysing the role of the thalamic gustatory area in taste discrimination in rats. Physiol Bohemoslov. 1967;16(1):18–22. PMID: X-1. [PubMed: 4226640]
Merson RM. Speech rehabilitation in congenital aglossia. J Rehabil. 1967 Sep-Oct;33(5):33–4. X-1. [PubMed: 6073256]
Pitanguy I, Franco T. Nonoperated facial fissures in adults. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1967 Jun;39(6):569–77. X-1. [PubMed: 4960961]
Rose GJ. Receding mandibular labial gingiva on children. Angle Orthod. 1967 Apr;37(2):147–50. X-1. [PubMed: 5229085]
Swan H, Jenkins D, Schemmel J. Thyroid autograft. A 12-year follow-up. Arch Surg. 1967 Jun;94(6):817–20. X-1. [PubMed: 4226078]
Tulley WJ. Prevention in orthodontics within the scope of the school programme. Int Dent J. 1967 Jun;17(2):368–83. X-1. [PubMed: 5248124]
Weiner MF, Land M. Psychiatry, psychosomatics and dentistry. Psychosomatics. 1967 Nov-Dec;8(6):338–41. X-1. [PubMed: 6078040]
Abramovich A, Devoto FC. Anomalous maxillofacial patterns produced by maternal lathyrism in rat foetuses. Arch Oral Biol. 1968 Jul;13(7):823–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5244303]
Allen DL, Shell JH. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of a periosteal separation procedure. J Periodontol. 1968 Sep;39(5):290–5. X-1. [PubMed: 5244723]
Arima M, Komiya K, Ono K, et al. Congenital minor anomalies in mentally retarded children. Proc Aust Assoc Neurol. 1968;5(1):177–82. X-1. [PubMed: 5709957]
Bachicha RL, Higgins LT. The abnormal frenum and its surgical correction. Chronicle. 1968 Dec;32(4):112–3. X-1. [PubMed: 5247407]
Bjuggren G, Jensen R, Strombeck JO. Macroglossia and its surgical treatment. Indications and postoperative experiences from the orthodontic, phoniatric, and surgical points of view. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. 1968;2(2):116–24. X-1. [PubMed: 5733935]
Block JR. The role of the speech clinician in determining indications for frenulotomy in cases of ankyloglossia. N Y State Dent J. 1968 Oct;34(8):479–81. X-1, X-2. [PubMed: 5244728]
Bressman E, Chasens AI. Free gingival graft with periosteal fenestration. J Periodontol. 1968 Sep;39(5):298–300. X-1. [PubMed: 5244725]
Buisson G. Preprosthetic surgery. Int Dent J. 1968 Mar;18(1):32–47. X-1. [PubMed: 4868941]
Doege TC, Campbell MM, Bryant JS, et al. Mental retardation and dermatoglyphics in a family with the oral-facial-digital syndrome. Am J Dis Child. 1968 Dec;116(6):615–22. X-1. [PubMed: 4301481]
Ewen SJ. Frena: Their roles especially in periodontics. N Y State Dent J. 1968 Dec;34(10):626–30. X-1. [PubMed: 5246656]
Gayler GG. Additional cases of a cardiofacial syndrome. J Pediatr. 1968 Dec;73(6):953–4. X-1. [PubMed: 5723510]
Gellis SS, Feingold M. Picture of the month: syndrome of neonatal hypoglycemia, macroglossia, visceromegaly, and omphalocele. Am J Dis Child. 1968 Mar;115(3):349–50. X-1. [PubMed: 5640529]
Gibbs SL. The superior labial frenum and its orthodontic considerations. N Y State Dent J. 1968 Nov;34(9):550–3. X-1. [PubMed: 5245974]
Hanley FJ, Floyd CE, Parker D. Congenital partial hemihypertrophy of the face. Report of three cases. J Oral Surg. 1968 Feb;26(2):136–41. X-1. [PubMed: 5241846]
Hiatt WH. Free gingival graft or frenectomy? J Colo Dent Assoc. 1968 Mar;46(2):7–9. X-1. [PubMed: 5242516]
Jolly M. Soft tissue surgery in general dental practice. Aust Dent J. 1968 Feb;13(1):1–16. X-1. [PubMed: 4869053]
Knaysi GA Jr., Cosman B, Crikelair GF. Hidradenitis suppurativa. Jama. 1968 Jan 1;203(1):19–22. X-1. [PubMed: 4864515]
Laskin DM. Surgical aids in orthodontics. Dent Clin North Am. 1968 Jul:509–24. X-1. [PubMed: 5240775]
Lazarus L, Young JD, Friend JC. E.M.G. syndrome and carbohydrate metabolism. Lancet. 1968 Dec 21;2(7582):1347–8. X-1. [PubMed: 4177412]
Nadeau J. Special prostheses. J Prosthet Dent. 1968 Jul;20(1):62–76. X-1. [PubMed: 4873089]
Popescu V. Congenital transverse facial cleft. Rom Med Rev. 1968;12(4):75–85. X-1. [PubMed: 5703538]
Poschel BP. Do biological reinforcers act via the self-stimulation areas of the brain? Physiol Behav. 1968;3(1):53–60. PMID: X-1.
Powell WJ, Jenkins HP. Transverse facial clefts. Report of three cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1968 Nov;42(5):454–9. X-1. [PubMed: 5699562]
Shafer AD. Primary macroglossia. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1968 Jun;7(6):357–63. X-1. [PubMed: 5648339]
Sinnette C, Odeku EL. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. The first case in an African child and the first case recognized at birth. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1968 Aug;7(8):488–92. X-1. [PubMed: 4970066]
Spivack J, Bennett JE. Glossopalatine ankylosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1968 Aug;42(2):129–36. X-1. [PubMed: 5665378]
Stahl A. Clinical, orthodontic and radiological findings in the jaws and face of children with dysmelia associated with thalidomide-embryopathy. Int Dent J. 1968 Sep;18(3):631–8. X-1. [PubMed: 5246854]
Stanback JS 3rd, Peagler FD. Primary amyloidosis. Review of the literature and report of a case. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1968 Dec;26(6):774–81. X-1. [PubMed: 5246776]
Tarsitano JJ, Cohen SM. Revelation and initial diagnosis of mild hemophilia from dental findings: report of case. J Am Dent Assoc. 1968 Apr;76(4):823–5. X-1. [PubMed: 5300257]
Tawil HM, Najjar SS. Congenital absence of the breasts. J Pediatr. 1968 Nov;73(5):751–3. X-1. [PubMed: 5681165]
West EE. Diastema--a cause for concern. Dent Clin North Am. 1968 Jul:425–34. X-1. [PubMed: 5248121]
Buchanan J, Frew ID, Gibson II, et al. Macroglossia in myelomatosis. Br J Plast Surg. 1969 Apr;22(2):157–60. X-1. [PubMed: 5785533]
Cosman B, Crikelair GF. Midline branchiogenic syndromes. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1969 Jul;44(1):41–8. X-1. [PubMed: 5791338]
Delilkan AE. Anaesthetic problems in a case of pseudo-hypertrophic muscular dystrophy presenting with macroglossia. Med J Malaya. 1969 Jun;23(4):253–5. X-1. [PubMed: 4242170]
DeMyer W, Baird I. Mortality and skeletal malformations from amniocentesis and oligohydramnios in rats: cleft palate, clubfoot, microstomia, and adactyly. Teratology. 1969 Feb;2(1):33–7. X-1. [PubMed: 4892408]
Gordon H, Davies D, Friedberg S. Congenital pits of the lower lip with cleft lip and palate. S Afr Med J. 1969 Oct 18;43(42):1275–9. X-1. [PubMed: 5361756]
Harris F, Zachary RB. xomphalos and marcroglossia (Beckwith's syndrome) Proc R Soc Med. 1969 Sep;62(9):905–6. X-1. [PMC free article: PMC1810860] [PubMed: 5823807]
Hoggins GS. Aglossia congenita with bony fusion of the jaws. Br J Oral Surg. 1969 Jul;7(1):63–5. X-1. [PubMed: 4309862]
Jain SN. Lingual thyroid. Int Surg. 1969 Oct;52(4):320–5. X-1. [PubMed: 5347292]
Knowles CC, Littlewood AH, Bush PG. Incomplete median cleft of the lower lip and chin with complete cleft of the mandible. A preliminary report. Br Dent J. 1969 Oct 7;127(7):337–9. X-1. [PubMed: 5259661]
Pitanguy I. A chiro-cheilo-podalic syndrome. Br J Plast Surg. 1969 Jan;22(1):79–85. X-1. [PubMed: 5775429]
Swanson LT, Murray JE. Partial glossectomy to stabilize occlusion following surgical correction of prognathism. Report of a case. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1969 Jun;27(6):707–15. X-1. [PubMed: 5254558]
Vande Voorde HE. Gingival grafting and gingival repositioning. J Am Dent Assoc. 1969 Dec;79(6):1415–20. X-1. [PubMed: 5259861]
White JH. Oculo-nasal dysplasia. J Genet Hum. 1969 May;17(1):107–14. X-1. [PubMed: 5808535]
Woolf CM, Woolf RM, Broadbent TR. Cleft lip and palate in parent and child. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1969 Nov;44(5):436–40. X-1. [PubMed: 5345481]
Arons MS, Solitare GB, Grunt JA. The macroglossia of Beckwith's syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1970 Apr;45(4):341–5. X-1. [PubMed: 5435867]
Barakat NJ, Howe GL. Pre-prosthetic surgery. Rev Dent Liban. 1970 Mar-Jun;20(1):39–46. 2. X-1. [PubMed: 4934337]
Barakat NJ, Howe GL. Pre-prosthetic surgery. 1. Rev Dent Liban. 1970 Mar-Jun;20(1):27–38. X-1. [PubMed: 4934336]
Bodner JW, Goss AN, Avery JK. Partial fusion between upper and lower lips in the rat: a report of a case. Cleft Palate J. 1970 Jan;7:330–5. X-1. [PubMed: 5266344]
Boo-Chai K. The oblique facial cleft. A report of 2 cases and a review of 41 cases. Br J Plast Surg. 1970 Oct;23(4):352–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4990922]
Bowers DG Jr. Congenital lower lip sinuses with cleft palate. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1970 Feb;45(2):151–4. X-1. [PubMed: 5411896]
Curran JP, al-Salihi FL, Allderdice PW. Partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome E-18. Pediatrics. 1970 Nov;46(5):721–9. X-1. [PubMed: 5481073]
Dorman HL, Bishop JG. Production of experimental edema in dog tongue with dilute hydrogen peroxide. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1970 Jan;29(1):38–43. X-1. [PubMed: 5261906]
Ewer RW, Kotheimer TG Jr. Spontaneous burned-out acromegaly with preservation of normal human growth hormone responses: diagnostic, historical, theoretical, and treatment aspects. Johns Hopkins Med J. 1970 Oct;127(4):199–212. X-1. [PubMed: 4320105]
Hamula W. Surgical alteration of muscle attachments to enhance esthetics and denture stability. Am J Orthod. 1970 Apr;57(4):327–69. X-1. [PubMed: 5265006]
Hitchin AD, Smith GA. The sequelae in a case of sublingual dermoid cyst with ankyloglossia. Br J Oral Surg. 1970 Nov;8(2):175–8. X-2, X-2. [PubMed: 5276749]
Holbrook LA. Congenital midline sinus of the upper lip. Br J Plast Surg. 1970 Apr;23(2):155–60. X-1. [PubMed: 5448527]
Kelly E. Tissue preparation for the complete denture patient--a simplified approach. Dent Clin North Am. 1970 Jul;14(3):441–52. X-1. [PubMed: 5268161]
Khanna NN. Congenital lip sinuses. Aust N Z J Surg. 1970 Nov;40(2):184–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5274942]
Mackenzie KI. Mid-line sinus of the upper lip. J Laryngol Otol. 1970 Feb;84(2):235–8. X-1. [PubMed: 5416439]
Malakouti B. Combined procedures in corrective surgery of prognathism and associated deformities. J Oral Surg. 1970 Jul;28(7):506–15. X-1. [PubMed: 5269213]
McConnel FM, Zellweger H, Lawrence RA. Labial pits--cleft lip and-or palate syndrome. A report of five new families. Arch Otolaryngol. 1970 May;91(5):407–11. X-1. [PubMed: 5442732]
Moncrieff MW, Mann JR, Goldsmith AR, et al. Macroglossia, abnormal umbilicus and hypoglycaemia (Beckwith's syndrome) Postgrad Med J. 1970 Mar;46(533):162–6. X-1. [PMC free article: PMC2466979] [PubMed: 5440739]
Mouly R. Correction of hypertrophy of the upper lip. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1970 Sep;46(3):262–4. X-1. [PubMed: 4915226]
Muhlbauer WD. Elongation of mouth in post-burn microstomia by a double Z-plasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1970 Apr;45(4):400–2. X-1. [PubMed: 5435871]
Nanda R, van der Linden FP, Jansen HW. Production of cleft palate with dexamethasone and hypervitaminosis A in rat embryos. Experientia. 1970 Oct 15;26(10):1111–2. X-1. [PubMed: 4320730]
Pereira LG. Partial glossectomy and osteotomy in the correction of mandibular prognathism. Trans Int Conf Oral Surg. 1970:185–9. X-1. [PubMed: 5282460]
Reed WB, Lopez DA, Landing B. Clinical spectrum of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Arch Dermatol. 1970 Aug;102(2):134–43. X-1. [PubMed: 5430308]
Rehim IA. Surgical management of double lip case report. Egypt Dent J. 1970 Apr;16(2):173–8. X-1. [PubMed: 5270718]
Smith JD, Cagas CR, Seely JR, et al. Defective iodide organification in “cryptothyroidism” J Okla State Med Assoc. 1970 May;63(5):195–9. X-1. [PubMed: 5511591]
Solomon LM, Fretzin D, Pruzansky S. Pilosebaceous dysplasia in the oral-facial-digital syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 1970 Dec;102(6):598–602. X-1. [PubMed: 5501900]
Sotelo-Avila C, Singer DB. Syndrome of hyperplastic fetal visceromegaly and neonatal hypoglycemia (Beckwith's syndrome). A report of seven cases. Pediatrics. 1970 Aug;46(2):240–51. X-1. [PubMed: 5432155]
Tipton JB. Closure of large septal perforations with a labial-buccal flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1970 Nov;46(5):514–5. X-1. [PubMed: 4919288]
Weinberg B, Paras N. Speech intelligibility of a seven-year-old girl with severe congenital hypoplasia of the tongue. Cleft Palate J. 1970 Apr;7:436–42. X-1. [PubMed: 5270490]
Wolfe SM, Henkin RI. Absence of taste in type II familial dysautonomia: unresponsiveness to methacholine despite the presence of taste buds. J Pediatr. 1970 Jul;77(1):103–8. X-1. [PubMed: 5450270]
Allison ML, Miller CW, Troiano MF, et al. Partial glossectomy for macroglossia. J Am Dent Assoc. 1971 Apr;82(4):852–7. X-1. [PubMed: 5278785]
Aro L, Takki S, Aromaa U. Technique for difficult intubation. Br J Anaesth. 1971 Nov;43(11):1081–3. X-1. [PubMed: 5131462]
Bell RC. A child with two tongues (oral-facial-digital syndrome) Br J Plast Surg. 1971 Apr;24(2):193–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5581758]
Birch JR, Lindsay WK. An evaluation of adults with repaired bilateral cleft lips and palates. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1971 Nov;48(5):457–65. X-1. [PubMed: 4941137]
Char F, Hansen FC. Frontonasal dysplasia with cutis aplasia congenita. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1971 Jun;7(8):265–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5173279]
Cohen MM Jr., Pantke H, Siris E. Nosologic and genetic considerations in the aglossy-adactyly syndrome. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1971 Jun;7(7):237–40. X-1. [PubMed: 5173210]
Dougrty HL. Intraoral soft tissue problems in orthodontic practice. J Am Dent Assoc. 1971 Apr;82(4):841–51. X-1. [PubMed: 5278784]
Fleming JP. Improvement of the face in Crouzon's disease by conservative operations. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1971 Jun;47(6):560–4. X-1. [PubMed: 4932580]
Guernsey LH. Preprosthetic surgery. Dent Clin North Am. 1971 Apr;15(2):455–86. X-1. [PubMed: 4926803]
Guerrero-Santos J, Ramirez M, Castaneda A, et al. Crossed-denuded flap as a complement to the Millard technique in the correction of cleft lip. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1971 Nov;48(5):506–8. X-1. [PubMed: 5120485]
Gupta OP. Congenital macroglossia. Arch Otolaryngol. 1971 Apr;93(4):378–83. X-1. [PubMed: 5548986]
Herremans EL. Anterior diastema: frenectomy. Dent Surv. 1971 Feb;47(2):33–7. X-1. [PubMed: 5279756]
Heycock MH. Beckwith's syndrome. Br J Plast Surg. 1971 Oct;24(4):414–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5115046]
Hoffman S. Congenital lip sinuses: hereditary aspects and their relationship to cleft lip and palate. Br J Plast Surg. 1971 Jul;24(3):241–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5568625]
Lentrodt J, Luhr HG. Reconstruction of the lower lip after tumor resection combined with radical neck dissection. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1971 Dec;48(6):579–83. X-1. [PubMed: 5141276]
Michaels DL, Go S, Humbert JR, et al. Intestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and hematologic abnormalities in a child with a ring 18 chromosome. J Pediatr. 1971 Jul;79(1):80–8. X-1. [PubMed: 5091271]
Miller EL. Preprosthetic surgery from the viewpoint of the prosthodontist. J Oral Surg. 1971 Nov;29(11):760–7. X-1. [PubMed: 4939870]
Palubis JE, Scott CI Jr. Lip pits with cleft lip and palate. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1971 Jun;7(7):254–7. X-1. [PubMed: 5173212]
Potdar GG, Desai PB. Carcinoma of the lingual thyroid. Laryngoscope. 1971 Mar;81(3):427–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4251886]
Rosenfeld PA, Gupta OP. Macroglossia. Arch Otolaryngol. 1971 Oct;94(4):381–2. X-1. [PubMed: 4255570]
Sharpe C. Congenital lip sinuses. Case reports. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1971 Jan;47(1):85–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5538570]
Spielman WR, Marano PD, Kolodny SC, et al. True hemifacial hypertrophy: report of case. J Oral Surg. 1971 Aug;29(8):592–5. X-1. [PubMed: 5284048]
Summitt RL, Hiatt RL, Duenas D, et al. Mesoectodermal dysplasia of the iris and cornea, mental retardation and myopathy: a sporadic case. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1971 Mar;7(3):129–35. X-1. [PubMed: 5006137]
Tan KL, Wong TT, Ong ES, et al. Congenital lip pits with cleft lip or palate. J Singapore Paediatr Soc. 1971 Oct;13(2):75–8. X-1. [PubMed: 5149808]
Tessier P. The definitive plastic surgical treatment of the severe facial deformities of craniofacial dysostosis. Crouzon's and Apert's diseases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1971 Nov;48(5):419–42. X-1. [PubMed: 4942075]
Verne D. Surgical treatment of common abnormalities in relation to oral prosthesis. J Oral Surg. 1971 Nov;29(11):768–76. X-1. [PubMed: 4939871]
Wei SH, Pal GS. Oral d dental abnormalities in mongolism (Down's Syndrome) J Iowa Med Soc. 1971 Jan;61(1):31–6. X-1. [PubMed: 4249961]
Welch JP, Penchaszadeh VB, Goldberg MF. Congenital indifference to pain. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1971 Feb;7(1):205–10. X-1. [PubMed: 4141908]
Zallen RD. Congenital lip sinuses of the lower lip: report of case. J Oral Surg. 1971 Oct;29(10):732–3. X-1. [PubMed: 5285833]
Abramovich A. Cleft palate in the fetuses of lathyric rats and its relation to other structures: nasal septum, tongue and mandible. Cleft Palate J. 1972 Jan;9(1):73–83. X-1. [PubMed: 4500298]
Bowers DG. Surgical repair of congenital lower lip sinuses. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1972 Jun;49(6):632–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5027418]
Caronni EP. A new method to correct the nasolabial angle in rhinoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1972 Oct;50(4):338–40. X-1. [PubMed: 5074933]
Cosman B, Crikelair GF. Mandibular hypoplasia and the late development of glossopharyngeal airway obstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1972 Dec;50(6):573–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4636491]
Downs MP, Silver HK. The “A.B.C.D's” to H.E.A.R. Early identification in nursery, office and clinic of the infant who is deaf. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1972 Oct;11(10):563–6. X-1. [PubMed: 5078530]
Fernandes CT, Wapnick S. Exomphalos and Beckwith syndrome. Cent Afr J Med. 1972 Dec;18(12):247–8. X-1. [PubMed: 4655843]
Ginsberg SP, Polack FM, Ravin MB, et al. Autonomic dysfunction syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1972 Dec;74(6):1121–5. X-1. [PubMed: 4646716]
Grunt JA, Enriquez AR. Further studies of the hypoglycemia in children with the exomphalos--macroglossia--gigantism syndrome. Yale J Biol Med. 1972 Feb;45(1):15–21. X-1. [PMC free article: PMC2591763] [PubMed: 5015569]
Hartbauer RE. Speech defects associated with orofacial abnormalities. Dent Assist. 1972 Aug;41(8):15–6. X-1. [PubMed: 4505287]
Hsieh CC. Dental diseases among the children in Chung-Shin Village and Tsaotung. Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 1972 Aug 28;71(8):537–49. X-1. [PubMed: 4511944]
Khosla VM. Labial and lingual frenectomy. Dent Assist. 1972 Jul;41(7):22–5. X-1. [PubMed: 4504995]
Krishnamurthy GT, Blahd WH. Lingual thyroid associated with Zenker's and vallecular diverticula. Report of a case and review of the literature. Arch Otolaryngol. 1972 Aug;96(2):171–5. X-1. [PubMed: 4628257]
Lawson RS. Lingual thyroid: behaviour after transplantation. Aust N Z J Surg. 1972 Feb;41(3):247–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4501634]
Massey WR. Closure of maxillary midline diastema with frenectomy and corticotomy. J Ga Dent Assoc. 1972 Autumn;46(2):26–7. X-1. [PubMed: 4511077]
Meinhof W, Gunther D. Treatment of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis of children (Candida Granuloma) with Clotrimazole. Arch Dermatol Forsch. 1972;242(3):293–308. X-1. [PubMed: 4337938]
Miller H. Lip incompetency and its treatment. N Y State Dent J. 1972 Apr;38(4):210–6. X-1. [PubMed: 4501451]
Nash HS Jr. Benign lesions of the oral cavity. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1972 Jun;5(2):207–29. X-1. [PubMed: 4339096]
Peterson A. Electrosurgical correction of maxillary double lip. Dent Dig. 1972 Apr;78(4):182–8. X-1. [PubMed: 4501431]
Reddy JK, Schimke RN, Chang CH, et al. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Wilms' tumor, cardiac hamartoma, persistent visceromegaly, and glomeruloneogenesis in a 2-year-old boy. Arch Pathol. 1972 Dec;94(6):523–32. X-1. [PubMed: 4343707]
Silbermann M, Moynihan FM, Maloney PL, et al. Skeletal open bite associated with bimaxillary dento-alveolar protrusion, evaluation and treatment. Br J Oral Surg. 1972 Nov;10(2):223–32. X-1. [PubMed: 4509986]
Ursell W. Hydramnios associated with congenital microstomia agnathia and synotia. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1972 Feb;79(2):185–6. X-1. [PubMed: 4556726]
NIDR at 25. J Am Dent Assoc. 1973 Jul;87(1):49–56. X-1. [PubMed: 4513385]
Ackerman JL, Ackerman AL, Ackerman AB. A new dental, ocular and cutaneous syndrome. Int J Dermatol. 1973 Sep-Oct;12(5):285–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4355828]
Ardran GM, Hamilton A, Kemp FH. Enlargement of the tongue and changes in the jaws with muscular dystrophy. Clin Radiol. 1973 Jul;24(3):359–64. X-1. [PubMed: 4730230]
Bartels RJ, Howard RC. Congenital midline sinus of the upper lip. Case report. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1973 Dec;52(6):665–8. X-1. [PubMed: 4759224]
Chaube S. Protective effects of thymidine, 5-aminoimidazolecarboxamide, and riboflavin against fetal abnormalities produced in rats by 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide. Cancer Res. 1973 Oct;33(10):2231–40. X-1. [PubMed: 4795389]
Fish J. Congenital intermaxillary fibrous bands. J Dent. 1973 Feb;1(3):117–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4516014]
Foretich EA, Cardo VA Jr., Zambito RF. Bilateral congenital absence of the submandibular duct orifices. J Oral Surg. 1973 Jul;31(7):556–7. X-1. [PubMed: 4513467]
Gotlin RW. Diazoxide therapy in the syndrome of Beckwith-Weidemann-Coombs. J Pediatr. 1973 Aug;83(2):342–3. X-1. [PubMed: 4717592]
Gottlieb SK, Fisher BK, Violin GA. Focal dermal hypoplasia. A nine-year follow-up study. Arch Dermatol. 1973 Oct;108(4):551–3. X-1. [PubMed: 4745291]
Greene RJ, Gilbert EF, Huang SW, et al. Immunodeficiency associated with exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism syndrome. J Pediatr. 1973 May;82(5):814–20. X-1. [PubMed: 4540610]
Hayashi S, Tomioka T, Aoki H, et al. Hemifacial hypertrophy. Report of two cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1973 Jun;35(6):750–61. X-1. [PubMed: 4513644]
Hicks KA, Dickie WR. Amyloidosis: report of a case presenting with macroglossia. Br J Plast Surg. 1973 Jul;26(3):274–6. X-1. [PubMed: 4726108]
Karfik V. Further development of congenital malformations influenced by surgical treatment. Acta Univ Carol Med Monogr. 1973;56:37–42. X-1. [PubMed: 4791775]
Kaufman SL, Frederickson R. Thyroid-binding globulin deficiency in a patient with Beckwith's syndrome. Calif Med. 1973 Apr;118(4):63–6. X-1. [PMC free article: PMC1455017] [PubMed: 4692182]
Kochhar DM. Limb development in mouse embryos. I. Analysis of teratogenic effects of retinoic acid. Teratology. 1973 Jun;7(3):289–95. X-1. [PubMed: 4713875]
Olow-Nordenram M, Nordenram A. Partial tongue excision in the treatment of apertognathia. I. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1973 Feb;35(2):152–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4513060]
Papanayotou PH, Hatziotis JC. Ascher's syndrome. Report of a case. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1973 Apr;35(4):467–71. X-1. [PubMed: 4511796]
Poradowska W, Jaworska M, Dudkiewicz Z, et al. Paranasal (oro-ocular) cleft of the face. Report of a case. Acta Chir Plast. 1973;15(1):1–6. X-1. [PubMed: 4126045]
Pruzansky S. 4th Symposium on oral sensation and perception. Concluding comment. II Symp Oral Sens Percept. 1973;(4):390–408. X-1. [PubMed: 4531113]
Rintala A, Lahti A. On so-called median lowerlip sinuses. Case report. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. 1973;7(1):78–80. X-1. [PubMed: 4752574]
Roe TF, Kershnar AK, Weitzman JJ, et al. Beckwith's syndrome with extreme organ hyperplasia. Pediatrics. 1973 Sep;52(3):372–81. X-1. [PubMed: 4730394]
Sanger RG, Kirby JW. The oral and facial manifestations of dermatomyositis with calcinosis. Report of a case. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1973 Apr;35(4):476–88. X-1. [PubMed: 4511797]
Schiff D, Colle E, Wells D, et al. Metabolic aspects of the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. J Pediatr. 1973 Feb;82(2):258–62. X-1. [PubMed: 4684368]
Schwartz AW. Median rhomboid glossitis. Case report. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1973 Jul;52(1):91–2. X-1. [PubMed: 4713826]
Skurnik H. Pre-prosthetic considerations--aberrant frena and muscle attachments. J Can Dent Assoc (Tor) 1973 Aug;39(8):534–6. X-1. [PubMed: 4580239]
Watson AC. An innervated muco-muscular flap for the correction of defects of the vermilion border of the lip. Br J Plast Surg. 1973 Oct;26(4):355–8. X-1. [PubMed: 4586381]
Wiedemann HR. E.M.G. syndrome. Lancet. 1973 Sep 15;2(7829):626–7. X-1. [PubMed: 4125428]
Akinosi JO. Multiple sublingual dermoid cysts. Br J Oral Surg. 1974 Nov;12(2):235–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4531363]
Converse JM, Wood-Smith D, McCarthy JG, et al. Bilateral facial microsomia. Diagnosis, classification, treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1974 Oct;54(4):413–23. X-1. [PubMed: 4412188]
Fucci DJ, Curtis AP, Harnack MM. Oral vibrotactile stimulation: A method for monitoring change in lingual sensitivity as a function of time. Bull Psychon Soc. 1974;4(6):573–4. PMID: X-1.
Hawkins DB, Simpson JV. Micrognathia and glossoptosis in the newborn. Surgical tacking of the tongue in small jaw syndromes. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1974 Dec;13(12):1066–73. X-1. [PubMed: 4215607]
Hornblass A, Dolan R. Oculofacial anomalies and corneal ulceration. Ann Ophthalmol. 1974 Jun;6(6):575–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4209237]
Hussey HH. Editorial: Tongue-tie. Jama. 1974 May 6;228(6):735. X-2. [PubMed: 4406265]
Jorgenson RJ. M--craniocarpotarsal dystrophy (whistling face syndrome) in two families. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1974;10(5):237–42. X-1. [PubMed: 4220006]
Kasner J, Gilbert EF, Viseskul C. Studies of malformation syndromes VID: the G syndrome. Further observations. Z Kinderheilkd. 1974;118(2):81–5. X-1. [PubMed: 4440087]
Knudsen GE, Bang G, Kristoffersen T. Implanting of allogenic demineralized dentin in human gingival tissue. J Clin Periodontol. 1974;1(3):153–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4532671]
McAllister RG. Macroglossia--a positional complication. Anesthesiology. 1974 Feb;40(2):199–200. X-1. [PubMed: 4812721]
Mirko P, Miroslav S, Lubor M. Significance of the labial frenum attachment in periodontal disease in man. Part II. An attempt to determine the resistance of periodontium. J Periodontol. 1974 Dec;45(12):895–7. X-1. [PubMed: 4533499]
Paez P, Warren WS, Srouji MN. Stridor as the presenting symptom of lingual thyroglossal duct cyst in an infant. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1974 Dec;13(12):1077–8. X-1. [PubMed: 4434667]
Pearlman BA. An oral contraceptive drug and gingival enlargement; the relationship between local and systemic factors. J Clin Periodontol. 1974;1(1):47–51. X-1. [PubMed: 4532116]
Pries C, Mittelman D, Miller M, et al. The EEC syndrome. Am J Dis Child. 1974 Jun;127(6):840–4. X-1. [PubMed: 4209740]
Schwenzer N. Rare clefts of the face. J Maxillofac Surg. 1974 Dec;2(4):224–9. X-1. [PubMed: 4531472]
Stadelmann W. Lingua fixata. Surgery for a shortened lingual frenum. Quintessence Int Dent Dig. 1974 Oct;5(10):49–53. X-1. [PubMed: 4530343]
Valdes-Dapena MA, Huff DS, DiGeorge AM. The association of congenital malformations and malignant tumors in infants and children.