Difference Between Glossary And Bibliography For Websites

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This glossary is intended to assist you in understanding commonly used terms and concepts when reading, interpreting, and evaluating scholarly research in the social sciences. Also included are general words and phrases defined within the context of how they apply to research in the social and behavioral sciences.


  • Acculturation -- refers to the process of adapting to another culture, particularly in reference to blending in with the majority population [e.g., an immigrant adopting American customs]. However, acculturation also implies that both cultures add something to one another, but still remain distinct groups unto themselves.
  • Accuracy -- a term used in survey research to refer to the match between the target population and the sample.
  • Affective Measures -- procedures or devices used to obtain quantified descriptions of an individual's feelings, emotional states, or dispositions.
  • Aggregate -- a total created from smaller units. For instance, the population of a county is an aggregate of the populations of the cities, rural areas, etc. that comprise the county. As a verb, it refers to total data from smaller units into a large unit.
  • Anonymity -- a research condition in which no one, including the researcher, knows the identities of research participants.
  • Baseline -- a control measurement carried out before an experimental treatment.
  • Behaviorism -- school of psychological thought concerned with the observable, tangible, objective facts of behavior, rather than with subjective phenomena such as thoughts, emotions, or impulses. Contemporary behaviorism also emphasizes the study of mental states such as feelings and fantasies to the extent that they can be directly observed and measured.
  • Beliefs -- ideas, doctrines, tenets, etc. that are accepted as true on grounds which are not immediately susceptible to rigorous proof.
  • Benchmarking -- systematically measuring and comparing the operations and outcomes of organizations, systems, processes, etc., against agreed upon "best-in-class" frames of reference.
  • Bias -- a loss of balance and accuracy in the use of research methods. It can appear in research via the sampling frame, random sampling, or non-response. It can also occur at other stages in research, such as while interviewing, in the design of questions, or in the way data are analyzed and presented. Bias means that the research findings will not be representative of, or generalizable to, a wider population.
  • Case Study -- the collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular participant or small group, frequently including data derived from the subjects themselves.
  • Causal Hypothesis -- a statement hypothesizing that the independent variable affects the dependent variable in some way.
  • Causal Relationship -- the relationship established that shows that an independent variable, and nothing else, causes a change in a dependent variable. It also establishes how much of a change is shown in the dependent variable.
  • Causality -- the relation between cause and effect.
  • Central Tendency -- any way of describing or characterizing typical, average, or common values in some distribution.
  • Chi-square Analysis -- a common non-parametric statistical test which compares an expected proportion or ratio to an actual proportion or ratio.
  • Claim -- a statement, similar to a hypothesis, which is made in response to the research question and that is affirmed with evidence based on research.
  • Classification -- ordering of related phenomena into categories, groups, or systems according to characteristics or attributes.
  • Cluster Analysis -- a method of statistical analysis where data that share a common trait are grouped together. The data is collected in a way that allows the data collector to group data according to certain characteristics.
  • Cohort Analysis -- group by group analytic treatment of individuals having a statistical factor in common to each group. Group members share a particular characteristic [e.g., born in a given year] or a common experience [e.g., entering a college at a given time].
  • Confidentiality -- a research condition in which no one except the researcher(s) knows the identities of the participants in a study. It refers to the treatment of information that a participant has disclosed to the researcher in a relationship of trust and with the expectation that it will not be revealed to others in ways that violate the original consent agreement, unless permission is granted by the participant.
  • Confirmability Objectivity -- the findings of the study could be confirmed by another person conducting the same study.
  • Construct -- refers to any of the following: something that exists theoretically but is not directly observable; a concept developed [constructed] for describing relations among phenomena or for other research purposes; or, a theoretical definition in which concepts are defined in terms of other concepts. For example, intelligence cannot be directly observed or measured; it is a construct.
  • Construct Validity -- seeks an agreement between a theoretical concept and a specific measuring device, such as observation.
  • Constructivism -- the idea that reality is socially constructed. It is the view that reality cannot be understood outside of the way humans interact and that the idea that knowledge is constructed, not discovered. Constructivists believe that learning is more active and self-directed than either behaviorism or cognitive theory would postulate.
  • Content Analysis -- the systematic, objective, and quantitative description of the manifest or latent content of print or nonprint communications.
  • Context Sensitivity -- awareness by a qualitative researcher of factors such as values and beliefs that influence cultural behaviors.
  • Control Group -- the group in an experimental design that receives either no treatment or a different treatment from the experimental group. This group can thus be compared to the experimental group.
  • Controlled Experiment -- an experimental design with two or more randomly selected groups [an experimental group and control group] in which the researcher controls or introduces the independent variable and measures the dependent variable at least two times [pre- and post-test measurements].
  • Correlation -- a common statistical analysis, usually abbreviated as r, that measures the degree of relationship between pairs of interval variables in a sample. The range of correlation is from -1.00 to zero to +1.00. Also, a non-cause and effect relationship between two variables.
  • Covariate -- a product of the correlation of two related variables times their standard deviations. Used in true experiments to measure the difference of treatment between them.
  • Credibility -- a researcher's ability to demonstrate that the object of a study is accurately identified and described based on the way in which the study was conducted.
  • Critical Theory -- an evaluative approach to social science research, associated with Germany's neo-Marxist “Frankfurt School,” that aims to criticize as well as analyze society, opposing the political orthodoxy of modern communism. Its goal is to promote human emancipatory forces and to expose ideas and systems that impede them.
  • Data -- factual information [as measurements or statistics] used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation.
  • Data Mining -- the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information, often to discover patterns and/or systematic relationships among variables.
  • Data Quality -- this is the degree to which the collected data [results of measurement or observation] meet the standards of quality to be considered valid [trustworthy] and  reliable [dependable].
  • Deductive -- a form of reasoning in which conclusions are formulated about particulars from general or universal premises.
  • Dependability -- being able to account for changes in the design of the study and the changing conditions surrounding what was studied.
  • Dependent Variable -- a variable that varies due, at least in part, to the impact of the independent variable. In other words, its value “depends” on the value of the independent variable. For example, in the variables “gender” and “academic major,” academic major is the dependent variable, meaning that your major cannot determine whether you are male or female, but your gender might indirectly lead you to favor one major over another.
  • Deviation -- the distance between the mean and a particular data point in a given distribution.
  • Discourse Community -- a community of scholars and researchers in a given field who respond to and communicate to each other through published articles in the community's journals and presentations at conventions. All members of the discourse community adhere to certain conventions for the presentation of their theories and research.
  • Discrete Variable -- a variable that is measured solely in whole units, such as, gender and number of siblings.
  • Distribution -- the range of values of a particular variable.
  • Effect Size -- the amount of change in a dependent variable that can be attributed to manipulations of the independent variable. A large effect size exists when the value of the dependent variable is strongly influenced by the independent variable. It is the mean difference on a variable between experimental and control groups divided by the standard deviation on that variable of the pooled groups or of the control group alone.
  • Emancipatory Research -- research is conducted on and with people from marginalized groups or communities. It is led by a researcher or research team who is either an indigenous or external insider; is interpreted within intellectual frameworks of that group; and, is conducted largely for the purpose of empowering members of that community and improving services for them. It also engages members of the community as co-constructors or validators of knowledge.
  • Empirical Research -- the process of developing systematized knowledge gained from observations that are formulated to support insights and generalizations about the phenomena being researched.
  • Epistemology -- concerns knowledge construction; asks what constitutes knowledge and how knowledge is validated.
  • Ethnography -- method to study groups and/or cultures over a period of time. The goal of this type of research is to comprehend the particular group/culture through immersion into the culture or group. Research is completed through various methods but, since the researcher is immersed within the group for an extended period of time, more detailed information is usually collected during the research.
  • Expectancy Effect -- any unconscious or conscious cues that convey to the participant in a study how the researcher wants them to respond. Expecting someone to behave in a particular way has been shown to promote the expected behavior. Expectancy effects can be minimized by using standardized interactions with subjects, automated data-gathering methods, and double blind protocols.
  • External Validity -- the extent to which the results of a study are generalizable or transferable.
  • Factor Analysis -- a statistical test that explores relationships among data. The test explores which variables in a data set are most related to each other. In a carefully constructed survey, for example, factor analysis can yield information on patterns of responses, not simply data on a single response. Larger tendencies may then be interpreted, indicating behavior trends rather than simply responses to specific questions.
  • Field Studies -- academic or other investigative studies undertaken in a natural setting, rather than in laboratories, classrooms, or other structured environments.
  • Focus Groups -- small, roundtable discussion groups charged with examining specific topics or problems, including possible options or solutions. Focus groups usually consist of 4-12 participants, guided by moderators to keep the discussion flowing and to collect and report the results.
  • Framework -- the structure and support that may be used as both the launching point and the on-going guidelines for investigating a research problem.
  • Generalizability -- the extent to which research findings and conclusions conducted on a specific study to groups or situations can be applied to the population at large.
  • Grounded Theory -- practice of developing other theories that emerge from observing a group. Theories are grounded in the group's observable experiences, but researchers add their own insight into why those experiences exist.
  • Group Behavior -- behaviors of a group as a whole, as well as the behavior of an individual as influenced by his or her membership in a group.
  • Hypothesis -- a tentative explanation based on theory to predict a causal relationship between variables.
  • Independent Variable -- the conditions of an experiment that are systematically manipulated by the researcher. A variable that is not impacted by the dependent variable, and that itself impacts the dependent variable. In the earlier example of "gender" and "academic major," (see Dependent Variable) gender is the independent variable.
  • Individualism -- a theory or policy having primary regard for the liberty, rights, or independent actions of individuals.
  • Inductive -- a form of reasoning in which a generalized conclusion is formulated from particular instances.
  • Inductive Analysis -- a form of analysis based on inductive reasoning; a researcher using inductive analysis starts with answers, but formulates questions throughout the research process.
  • Insiderness -- a concept in qualitative research that refers to the degree to which a researcher has access to and an understanding of persons, places, or things within a group or community based on being a member of that group or community.
  • Internal Consistency -- the extent to which all questions or items assess the same characteristic, skill, or quality.
  • Internal Validity -- the rigor with which the study was conducted [e.g., the study's design, the care taken to conduct measurements, and decisions concerning what was and was not measured]. It is also the extent to which the designers of a study have taken into account alternative explanations for any causal relationships they explore. In studies that do not explore causal relationships, only the first of these definitions should be considered when assessing internal validity.
  • Life History -- a record of an event/events in a respondent's life told [written down, but increasingly audio or video recorded] by the respondent from his/her own perspective in his/her own words. A life history is different from a "research story" in that it covers a longer time span, perhaps a complete life, or a significant period in a life.
  • Margin of Error -- the permittable or acceptable deviation from the target or a specific value. The allowance for slight error or miscalculation or changing circumstances in a study.
  • Measurement -- process of obtaining a numerical description of the extent to which persons, organizations, or things possess specified characteristics.
  • Meta-Analysis -- an analysis combining the results of several studies that address a set of related hypotheses.
  • Methodology -- a theory or analysis of how research does and should proceed.
  • Methods -- systematic approaches to the conduct of an operation or process. It includes steps of procedure, application of techniques, systems of reasoning or analysis, and the modes of inquiry employed by a discipline.
  • Mixed-Methods -- a research approach that uses two or more methods from both the quantitative and qualitative research categories. It is also referred to as blended methods, combined methods, or methodological triangulation.
  • Modeling -- the creation of a physical or computer analogy to understand a particular phenomenon. Modeling helps in estimating the relative magnitude of various factors involved in a phenomenon. A successful model can be shown to account for unexpected behavior that has been observed, to predict certain behaviors, which can then be tested experimentally, and to demonstrate that a given theory cannot account for certain phenomenon.
  • Models -- representations of objects, principles, processes, or ideas often used for imitation or emulation.
  • Naturalistic Observation -- observation of behaviors and events in natural settings without experimental manipulation or other forms of interference.
  • Norm -- the norm in statistics is the average or usual performance. For example, students usually complete their high school graduation requirements when they are 18 years old. Even though some students graduate when they are younger or older, the norm is that any given student will graduate when he or she is 18 years old.
  • Null Hypothesis -- the proposition, to be tested statistically, that the experimental intervention has "no effect," meaning that the treatment and control groups will not differ as a result of the intervention. Investigators usually hope that the data will demonstrate some effect from the intervention, thus allowing the investigator to reject the null hypothesis.
  • Ontology -- a discipline of philosophy that explores the science of what is, the kinds and structures of objects, properties, events, processes, and relations in every area of reality.
  • Panel Study -- a longitudinal study in which a group of individuals is interviewed at intervals over a period of time.
  • Participant -- individuals whose physiological and/or behavioral characteristics and responses are the object of study in a research project.
  • Peer-Review -- the process in which the author of a book, article, or other type of publication submits his or her work to experts in the field for critical evaluation, usually prior to publication. This is standard procedure in publishing scholarly research.
  • Phenomenology -- a qualitative research approach concerned with understanding certain group behaviors from that group's point of view.
  • Philosophy -- critical examination of the grounds for fundamental beliefs and analysis of the basic concepts, doctrines, or practices that express such beliefs.
  • Phonology -- the study of the ways in which speech sounds form systems and patterns in language.
  • Policy -- governing principles that serve as guidelines or rules for decision making and action in a given area.
  • Policy Analysis -- systematic study of the nature, rationale, cost, impact, effectiveness, implications, etc., of existing or alternative policies, using the theories and methodologies of relevant social science disciplines.
  • Population -- the target group under investigation. The population is the entire set under consideration. Samples are drawn from populations.
  • Position Papers -- statements of official or organizational viewpoints, often recommending a particular course of action or response to a situation.
  • Positivism -- a doctrine in the philosophy of science, positivism argues that science can only deal with observable entities known directly to experience. The positivist aims to construct general laws, or theories, which express relationships between phenomena. Observation and experiment is used to show whether the phenomena fit the theory.
  • Predictive Measurement -- use of tests, inventories, or other measures to determine or estimate future events, conditions, outcomes, or trends.
  • Principal Investigator -- the scientist or scholar with primary responsibility for the design and conduct of a research project.
  • Probability -- the chance that a phenomenon will occur randomly. As a statistical measure, it is shown as p [the "p" factor].
  • Questionnaire -- structured sets of questions on specified subjects that are used to gather information, attitudes, or opinions.
  • Random Sampling -- a process used in research to draw a sample of a population strictly by chance, yielding no discernible pattern beyond chance. Random sampling can be accomplished by first numbering the population, then selecting the sample according to a table of random numbers or using a random-number computer generator. The sample is said to be random because there is no regular or discernible pattern or order. Random sample selection is used under the assumption that sufficiently large samples assigned randomly will exhibit a distribution comparable to that of the population from which the sample is drawn. The random assignment of participants increases the probability that differences observed between participant groups are the result of the experimental intervention.
  • Reliability -- the degree to which a measure yields consistent results. If the measuring instrument [e.g., survey] is reliable, then administering it to similar groups would yield similar results. Reliability is a prerequisite for validity. An unreliable indicator cannot produce trustworthy results.
  • Representative Sample -- sample in which the participants closely match the characteristics of the population, and thus, all segments of the population are represented in the sample. A representative sample allows results to be generalized from the sample to the population.
  • Rigor -- degree to which research methods are scrupulously and meticulously carried out in order to recognize important influences occurring in an experimental study.
  • Sample -- the population researched in a particular study. Usually, attempts are made to select a "sample population" that is considered representative of groups of people to whom results will be generalized or transferred. In studies that use inferential statistics to analyze results or which are designed to be generalizable, sample size is critical, generally the larger the number in the sample, the higher the likelihood of a representative distribution of the population.
  • Sampling Error -- the degree to which the results from the sample deviate from those that would be obtained from the entire population, because of random error in the selection of respondent and the corresponding reduction in reliability.
  • Saturation -- a situation in which data analysis begins to reveal repetition and redundancy and when new data tend to confirm existing findings rather than expand upon them.
  • Semantics -- the relationship between symbols and meaning in a linguistic system. Also, the cuing system that connects what is written in the text to what is stored in the reader's prior knowledge.
  • Social Theories -- theories about the structure, organization, and functioning of human societies.
  • Sociolinguistics -- the study of language in society and, more specifically, the study of language varieties, their functions, and their speakers.
  • Standard Deviation -- a measure of variation that indicates the typical distance between the scores of a distribution and the mean; it is determined by taking the square root of the average of the squared deviations in a given distribution. It can be used to indicate the proportion of data within certain ranges of scale values when the distribution conforms closely to the normal curve.
  • Statistical Analysis -- application of statistical processes and theory to the compilation, presentation, discussion, and interpretation of numerical data.
  • Statistical Bias -- characteristics of an experimental or sampling design, or the mathematical treatment of data, that systematically affects the results of a study so as to produce incorrect, unjustified, or inappropriate inferences or conclusions.
  • Statistical Significance -- the probability that the difference between the outcomes of the control and experimental group are great enough that it is unlikely due solely to chance. The probability that the null hypothesis can be rejected at a predetermined significance level [0.05 or 0.01].
  • Statistical Tests -- researchers use statistical tests to make quantitative decisions about whether a study's data indicate a significant effect from the intervention and allow the researcher to reject the null hypothesis. That is, statistical tests show whether the differences between the outcomes of the control and experimental groups are great enough to be statistically significant. If differences are found to be statistically significant, it means that the probability [likelihood] that these differences occurred solely due to chance is relatively low. Most researchers agree that a significance value of .05 or less [i.e., there is a 95% probability that the differences are real] sufficiently determines significance.
  • Subcultures -- ethnic, regional, economic, or social groups exhibiting characteristic patterns of behavior sufficient to distinguish them from the larger society to which they belong.
  • Testing -- the act of gathering and processing information about individuals' ability, skill, understanding, or knowledge under controlled conditions.
  • Theory -- a general explanation about a specific behavior or set of events that is based on known principles and serves to organize related events in a meaningful way. A theory is not as specific as a hypothesis.
  • Treatment -- the stimulus given to a dependent variable.
  • Trend Samples -- method of sampling different groups of people at different points in time from the same population.
  • Triangulation -- a multi-method or pluralistic approach, using different methods in order to focus on the research topic from different viewpoints and to produce a multi-faceted set of data. Also used to check the validity of findings from any one method.
  • Unit of Analysis -- the basic observable entity or phenomenon being analyzed by a study and for which data are collected in the form of variables.
  • Validity -- the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure. A method can be reliable, consistently measuring the same thing, but not valid.
  • Variable -- any characteristic or trait that can vary from one person to another [race, gender, academic major] or for one person over time [age, political beliefs].
  • Weighted Scores -- scores in which the components are modified by different multipliers to reflect their relative importance.
  • White Paper -- an authoritative report that often states the position or philosophy about a social, political, or other subject, or a general explanation of an architecture, framework, or product technology written by a group of researchers. A white paper seeks to contain unbiased information and analysis regarding a business or policy problem that the researchers may be facing.

Free Social Science Dictionary. Socialsciencedictionary.com [2008]. Glossary. Institutional Review Board. Colorado College; Glossary of Key Terms. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Glossary A-Z. Education.com; Glossary of Research Terms. Research Mindedness Virtual Learning Resource. Centre for Human Servive Technology. University of Southampton; Jupp, Victor. The SAGE Dictionary of Social and Cultural Research Methods. London: Sage, 2006.

Glossary of Library Terms

A glossary is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book which are either newly introduced or at least uncommon.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW X YZ

A
Abstract
A brief summary of the content or essence of a book, article, speech, report, or dissertation.
Academic / Scholarly Journal
Articles are written by academics for academic audiences (researchers, professionals and students). An editorial board of subject experts critically analyse draft articles to ensure they meet certain standards before they are accepted for publication. Articles usually have an abstract at the beginning summarising the main points and a bibliography or reference list at the end to show other works cited.  Most (but not all) scholarly publications are peer reviewed (also known as refereed).
Ampersand
 The symbol "&" which means “and”.
Annotation
A critical or explanatory note, usually included in a bibliographical reference or citation.
Annual publication
An item published once a year, every year.
Anthology
A collection of stories, plays, or poems.
Article
A brief composition on a topic usually published in a magazine or journal.
Atlas
A book of maps.
Author
A writer of a book, essay, story, play, poem or other work. Some works have two or more co-authors. In library catalogues authorship is sometimes attributed to an organisation, conference symposium, or institution. This is known as a corporate author.  Other individuals such as editor, playwright, director, composer, performer, or other, may also be considered an author.
Autobiography
An account of one's life written by oneself. See also biography.
B
Biannual publication
An item published twice a year.
Bibliographic information
Information about published items. This information generally covers four basic elemFents. (1) Author/Editor/Producer (2) Date of publication (3) Title of item (4) Publication information (Place of publication, Publisher, URL, Address etc).
Bibliography (1)
 A list of all the books, journal articles, conference papers and websites etc that have been used during a person’s research.  The bibliography might include items not specifically cited in the text of a document, but they are still important background reading that support ideas and conclusions reached by the author.  This list of references is found at the end of a book, article or assignment.
Bibliography (2)
A list of books, articles etc on a specific subject and published as a book
Biennial publication
An item published every two years.
Biography
An account of a person's life, written by another. The person who writes a biography is the biographer. The person written about is known as the biographee. See also autobiography.
Borrow
To issue, check out or charge out library materials.
Bound periodical/journal
Older issues of periodicals/journals that have been bound together between hard covers so they look like a book. This is done to preserve them and to make storing easier.
C
Call number
A unique location code or shelf number that appears on the spine of a book or bound periodical.
Catalogue
A catalogue contains records, with detailed descriptions and location information, of the material in a library collection. In this Library the catalogue is available online and known as Library Search.
CD-ROM
An abbreviation for "Compact Disc Read-Only Memory;" A computer with a CD-ROM drive is needed to read this kind of disc.
"Chat with a Librarian"
"Chat with a Librarian" is a service provided by the library as a way of allowing users to have a conversation and seek advice from librarians via the website, using instant messaging.
Citation
A brief description of a text (book, article, report, World Wide Web page, or other) that has been quoted, or used as an authority. A complete citation for a book typically includes author, year, title, and publication information such as place of publication, publisher or URL. A complete citation for a periodical or magazine article includes author and title of the article, title of the periodical, volume number, page numbers, and the dates or a retrieval statement like a URL or DOI.
For details of different formatting styles see: Referencing Overview.
Classification
Classification is used in libraries to keep like subjects together on the shelves. The major classification scheme used in the Central Library (located in the Student Centre) is the Library of Congress (LC) Classification. Books and journals are assigned a classification number (which in LC Classification is a combination of letters and numbers) that represents the general subject of the item. Additional letters and numbers are added (usually the first two letters of the author's last name and the date of publication) to form a call number. The use of classification allows library users to browse shelves to find additional items close by on the same or related subjects. The Teaching Resources Library, which is located in the TL building of the Faculty of Education, is classified in the Dewey Decimal System.
Collected work
A book of works by different authors (essays, stories, poems, plays).
Conference paper
The print or electronic version of a talk or presentation given at a conference or meeting.
Conference proceedings
The official record of the things said and done at a conference or meeting.  Usually available online or in print.
Copyright
The legal right granted to an author, editor, composer, playwright, publisher, or distributor to exclusive publication, production, sale, or distribution of a literary, musical, dramatic, or artistic work. This legal right will limit what can be copied or quoted from any published work.
Corporate author
When the author of a book, essay, article or other work is an organisation, conference symposium or institution.
Cross reference
In a catalogue or index, a direction that leads a user from one entry or subject heading to another.
Current periodicals
The most recent issues of a journal or magazine that a library has received. The current issues of a print periodical are bound when enough have accumulated to constitute the size of an ordinary book (usually about a year's worth or less). The majority of the library's periodicals are accessed online and are known as eJournals.
D
Database
A comprehensive collection of related data organised for convenient access, generally in a computer.
Desk copy
Term formerly used for the High Demand Collection.
Dewey Decimal System
Library classification system used for material held in the Teaching Collection of the Teaching Resources Library.  With the non-fiction collection, subjects are divided into ten main groups which are represented by series of numbers. Each of these groups is divided into more specialised groups.  There is always a decimal point after the first three numbers.  The first three letters which follow the number are usually the first three letters of the author's surname.   Fiction is shelved alphabetically by author.
Dictionary
A book of alphabetically listed words in a language with generally accepted definitions, etymologies, pronunciations, and other information. Some dictionaries are specialised; for example, Dictionary of Sociology, Dictionary of Literary Terms.
Directory
A book that lists the names, addresses and telephone numbers of a specific group of persons, companies, organisations, or publications.
Dissertation
An extended scholarly essay submitted for a degree or other academic qualification.  See also thesis.
DOI - Digital Object Identifier
The method of identifying online material such as journal articles, books and reports. It provides a persistent link to the electronic form of the document and is made up of letters and numbers.  It is unique like a digital finger print.
See what a DOI looks like.
E
EBooks
An electronic version of a book. The Library now has more than 100,000 eBooks, some of which can be downloaded to e-readers or other hand held devices. Most eBooks have considerable restrictions on how many pages can be copied or printed at a time.
Edition
Some books are revised and republished, particularly reference books. The new version may be called a "revised" or "second" edition. Subsequent editions are numbered sequentially. The latest edition is the most current, but older editions may contain useful information deleted from later editions.
Editor
A person who selects and prepares the works of other writers for publication, by selection, arrangement, and annotation.
EJournals
An electronic version of a journal. Some are online versions of print journals, others are only published via the internet. At the University of Waikato, eJournals are accessed via Library Search, specific databases, or the Ejournals tab on the Library homepage.
Electronic information resources
Any of several different categories of databases and machine-readable files, including, but not limited to electronic journals, online databases and World Wide Web sites.  
Encyclopedia/encyclopaedia
A reference book containing information on all subjects, or limited to a special field or subject (sometimes in more than one volume).
Enquiries desk (previously known as the Lending desk)
The first service point for general enquiries and directions to collections or other service points in the Student Centre. Also, users can ask for help with membership, borrowing, and fines queries
Endnote
A referencing tool that enables you to collect, organise and cite your reference lists and bibliographies.
F
Fine
A fee charged for keeping a book or other library materials longer than the time allowed.
G
Glossary
An alphabetical list of words related to a specific topic, with definitions, often placed at the end of a book.
Government document
A publication of a government including hearings, reports, treaties, periodicals, and statistics.
H
Handbook
A reference book that provides concise, useful data and other information on a specific subject.
Hardcopy
Printed material, as opposed to information in microform or digital (electronic) format.
High Demand
The High Demand Collection is where items that are in heavy demand are placed while students work on specific assignments. Items are held in this collection for a limited period of time and may be borrowed for a short period of time (usually two hours). This collection is located to the left of the door on Level 2 of the Student Centre. Previously, this was known as Course Reserve
Holdings
All the materials (print, non-print, and electronic) owned by a library.
I
Ibid
An abbreviation of the Latin word ibidem which means "in the same place".  In referencing styles that use ibid, it refers to the last work cited.  This saves re-typing the author and title. Usually this is found in footnotes.  It is not used in APA referencing.
Index
i) A back-of-the-book index is an alphabetical detailed list of the names, places, and subjects discussed in a book and the numbers of the pages on which each subject is treated.

ii) A periodical index is an alphabetical listing of magazine or journal articles by subject, and sometimes by author. Most periodical indexes cover a specific topical area or discipline.
Instant Messaging
A form of real-time, online text-based communication between two or more people over a network, such as the internet. It can be accessed through computers or other networked devices. At the University of Waikato this is known as 'Chat with a Librarian'.
Interloan or Interlibrary loan or Document delivery
A library service in which libraries loan books and other materials to each other. If the library does not hold an item, it can be borrowed from another library.
ISBN
Abbreviation for International Standard Book Number. A unique 10 or 13-digit number that is given to every book or edition of a book before publication to identify the publisher, the title, the edition, and volume number. The ISBN is usually printed on the reverse side of the title page of a book.
ISSN
Abbreviation for International Standard Serial Number. A unique 8-digit number that identifies a specific periodical title.
Issue
All the copies of a specific periodical title published on the same date. A subscription entitles the subscriber to receive one copy of each issue.
J
Journal
A publication published periodically (monthly, quarterly, or other), devoted to a specific field or subfield of knowledge. Print journals are stored in a separate collection in the Central Library (Level 3 of the Student Centre). Most journals are accessed online. See also eJournals, peer-reviewed, academic/scholarly, professional/trade and popular/general journal.
K
Keyword
A word indicating a main term or concept or subject discussed in a document.  It is used in searching catalogues and databases and Library Search.
L
Large book collection
Most large books are interfiled with the general collection.  NZC on Level 4 of the Student Centre does have a separate large book collection.  This has large books that cannot fit on the regular shelves.  NZC also has a shelf that holds extra large books that are over 40 cm.
Librarian 
A specialist in the field of information retrieval, and often, in other subject areas as well. Librarians have a qualification in librarianship and usually other graduate degrees also.  They help users find materials needed for research, and teach users how to use library resources.
Library of Congress (LC) Classification
The classification system used in the Library of Congress, and used for arranging most of the University of Waikato Library collections
Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)
A standard list of words or groups of words under which books and other material on a subject are entered in a catalogue. These subject headings can be helpful when searching Library Search.
Library Search
A search tool that enables users to search the Library's online and print resources through a single search box. To use Library Search efficiently, you need to refine your search by using the filters on the right hand side of the page e.g. Resource type, subject and publication date.
Library Service Desks
Library Service Desks in the Student Centre and Teaching Resources Library provide a first point of contact for help and advice.
Lightwire
An Internet service provider. Student internet on campus is free. Students living in an area covered by Lightwire can register to get the residential 2 GB of free data per month. This account can be kept active as long as you update your UoW password or alternatively use your private Lightwire username and password which never expire.
M
Microfiche
A 4x6 inch sheet of film, used for storage of miniaturised text. Microfiche and reader/printers are on Level 4 of the Student Centre.
Microfilm
A continuous roll of film, used for storage of miniaturised text (usually newspapers, journals or magazines).  Microfilms and reader/printers are stored on Level 4 of the Student Centre.
Microform
Film medium for storage of miniaturised text. Includes both microfiche and microfilm.
Monograph
A publication that appears one time only. Books or reports are monographs; periodicals or serials are not.
My Interloan
The portal where University of Waikato staff and students place and track Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery requests. It is powered by the software ZPortal.
N
Newspaper
A serial publication printed and distributed daily or weekly containing news, opinions, advertising, and other items of general interest.
Non-print
Material published in a format other than print on paper e.g. audio cassettes, compact discs, videocassettes, DVDs and electronic (online) resources.
O
Online
Accessible via a computer or computer network. Also called "computerised" or "electronic."
Online catalogue
A computer database that lists most books, serials, and non-print items owned by a library. At the University of Waikato, this is called Library Search
Overdue
An item has been kept by the borrower past its due date. There are usually fines for overdue items.
P
Panopto
A University wide solution for capturing video and audio content.  Often it is used for teaching, learning and research.
Peer reviewed
A publication (journal or conference paper) is considered to be peer reviewed or refereed if its articles go through an official editorial process that involves review and approval by the author's peers (people who are experts in the same subject area) and are of a suitable standard.   Most (but not all) scholarly publications are peer reviewed.  If you have a journal in hard copy (print), the inside cover of the journal will state if the journal is peer reviewed.  If the journal is electronically available, it will often state that it is peer reviewed or refereed on the homepage or in the guide for contributors sections.
Periodicals
Journals or magazines which are published at regular intervals longer than a day but shorter than a year (weekly, monthly). See also Serials.
Periodical index
A cumulative listing of citations to periodical articles, arranged alphabetically by subject and by the author's last name. Most periodical indexes are devoted to a specific field or discipline or type of periodical (for example, newspapers).
Plagiarism
An unacceptable practice of using other people's work or ideas without acknowledgement.
Popular/general journal or magazine
A periodical intended for the general public rather than for scholars. Examples are Newsweek, Time and Business Week.
Professional /trade journal
A periodical written by practitioners or journalists/writers with subject expertise.  These are aimed at people in a particular trade or profession.
Publication date
Year in which a book or periodical is published. The publication date is usually found on the back of the title page of a print book (verso) or on the cover of a print periodical, in the item's Library record or in the case of online resources, in the database that holds it. This is usually an essential part of a citation.
Q
Quarterly publication
Published four times a year.  Many scholarly journals are published quarterly.
Quick Reference Collection
Frequently-used books such as telephone directories, English dictionaries, encyclopedias and other material used to look up quick answers to enquiries. Most quick reference books cannot be borrowed. There is a Law and NZC Quick Reference Collection in the Central Library on Level 4 of the Student Centre.
R
Recall notice
If a user requests a book which is issued to someone else, this means the original due date of the borrowed item is no longer valid.  Library Staff will send out a recall notice via email or post requesting that the item be returned.  The borrower has to return the material by the new due date whether they have finished with it or not. This procedure helps to share high demand library material among all users.
Recreational reading
A collection of popular novels that provide light relief from study. The selection is refreshed frequently. It is located on Level 3 of the Student Centre.
Reference book
A book such as a dictionary, encyclopedia or directory that contains specific facts, data, or other brief bits of information.  Most hard copy reference books may not be borrowed. Many online dictionaries and encyclopedias can be accessed via the Subject portals.
Reference List
The full bibliographic information for each source cited in a text.  A source has to be referenced when it has been quoted directly or indirectly (paraphrasing).
Reference-only
Material which can be consulted in the library, but may not be borrowed.
Renew
To extend the loan period of a book.
Request
If a print item is not on the shelves, is on loan, or in storage, staff and students can place a request. This is done through Library Search.
S
Self issue machine
Machines that allow users to issue and renew their own books.
Serials
Also known as periodicals. A term that describes a wide range of publications that are issued in successive parts with no predictable end in sight.  Periodicals, magazines, journals, newspapers, annual reports, series, some conference proceedings, and annual reviews are all examples of serials.
Student Centre – Te Manawa
 A learning and social space where people can meet.  Students and staff can access a range of services here including the Central Library, Bennetts bookshop, cafes, fees office and Student Services.
Style manual
A guide that provides rules and formats for arranging footnotes, citations, and bibliographies. Various style manuals are available in the Library. The choice of style manual depends on the discipline or subject matter. Departments will provide guidance to students as to which style manual to use for formatting citations.
Subject portals
These provide a gateway to essential resources and guides for each major subject area. They have been selected by the Academic Liaison Librarians to support students’ study and research. These can be accessed from anywhere on The Library site or see Subject Portals.
Subtitle
The portion of a work's title following the semicolon or colon.
T
Table of contents
A list of the chapter or article titles in a book or journal. This is usually found at the beginning of a book after the title page. Library Search lists the table of contents for many recent books/eBooks. It is located in the description field of the book's full record. The table of contents for a print journal may sometimes be found on the cover (back or front) of each issue, inserted in one issue of the volume (but covering all issues of a volume) or issued separately. Table of contents for online journals can be viewed when a search is made via the title, year, volume and issue.
Thesaurus
Note two distinct meanings:
(i) A book of synonyms, sometimes including contrasting words (antonyms). The most well-known thesaurus of this type is Roget's.

(ii) An alphabetical list of terms and concepts representing the specialised vocabulary of a particular field.  An example of one among many hundreds of this type is Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms.
Thesis
A dissertation to maintain or prove a proposition, especially one written as the principal requirement for a degree.
Title
The name of a book, essay, story, play, poem, picture, statue, piece of music, film, etc.
U
URL
Uniform Resource Locator or Universal Resource Locator.  A standardised address that identifies a particular file or resource on the Internet.  It usually consists of the protocol http followed by the domain name. e.g. http://www.waikato.ac.nz/library/
USB
Universal Serial Bus.  A plug-and-play portable storage device that uses flash memory.  It gives users the ability to plug a device into a computer and work on documents stored on it.
V
VeRD
Virtual Reference Desk.  A Moodle-based Library resource that provides referencing and information-finding support for students. It is staffed by librarians.  Help comes in the form of FAQs, guides, PowerPoints, quizzes, videos, and online forums.
Verso
The reverse side of the title page of a book.
Virtual Browse
A feature of Library Search located in the full record of physical items. It is accessed by clicking the item’s title and scrolling to the bottom of the page. It enables users to browse for other books in the same subject area as the original item.
W
Waikato Reading Lists
Waikato Reading Lists is a quick and easy way to access online Course Reading Lists and see what the recommended and essential readings are for a course.
Weekly publication
Published once a week. Many popular magazines, and some newspapers, are published weekly.
Y
Yearbook
An annual documentary, historical, or memorial publication containing information about the previous year.
Z
Zotero
A free, web-based referencing tool that collects, organises, cites and shares research sources.

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