Harvard is a commonly used method of referencing, which uses the Author-Date system.
Which Harvard style?
Note: Harvard has been adapted to suit many different publication styles. The style used in this guide follows the standard prescribed by the following manual:
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.This is the official style followed in most Australian Government publications.
Which style does my Faculty or School use?
Some Schools require a different style from the one outlined here. Use the citation style required by your Faculty or School.
Why Reference your sources?
It is important to reference the sources you use for essays and reports, so that the reader can follow your arguments and check your sources. It is essential to correctly acknowledge the author when quoting or using other people’s ideas in your work.
How do I use Harvard?
In-text citations are made like this
Paraphrasing and in-text citations
The point made by an analytic philosopher (O'Connor 1969, p. 32) is that values cannot be justified in this way. However Kneller (1963b, p. 102) insists that the theorist will inevitably be involved in value claims.
Note: Page, chapter or section numbers may be included in the in-text citation if the cited work is long and the information helps the reader locate the relevant information.
When the authors name is mentioned in-text (eg. Kneller in the example above) add year and page numbers only to the in-text reference.
Entries that have the same author and year are noted by adding a, b, c etc to the year, both in-text eg. Kneller (1963b, p. 102) and in the Reference List (see entries in Reference List below).
Direct quotes and in-text citations
‘Having a solid plan as part of research design is essential’ (Hatch 2002, p. 46).
Hatch (2002, p. 46) believes ‘having a solid plan as part of research design is essential.’
Note: Always include page numbers when citing a quotation and enclose the quote in single quotation marks.
Block quotes and in-text citations
Inductive analysis is discussed:
Inductive thinking proceeds from the specific to the general. Understandings are generated by starting with specfic
elements and finding connections among them. To argue inductively is to begin with particular pieces of evidence,
then pull them together into a meaningful whole. Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaningful data so
the general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made (Hatch 2002, p. 161).
Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block. These quotes are usually indented eg. 5 spaces and are in a smaller font eg. 1 pt smaller than the surrounding text. Do not enclose the quote in quotation marks.
Reference lists, at the end of your paper, are made like this (arrange your list alphabetically by author).
Hatch, JA 2002, Doing qualitative research in education settings. State of , .
Kneller, JP 1963a, Is logical thinking logical? Ponsonby & Partridge, Dubbo.
-----1963b, ‘Thinking and logical interaction’, Brain Logic, vol. 257, no. 4, pp. 54-62.
O'Connor, DJ 1969, An introduction to the philosophy of education, Routledge & Kegan Paul, .
[See the sample Reference list].
What is quoting?
Quoting is where you copy an author's text word for word, place quotation marks around the words and add a citation at the end of the quote. Quotes should be using sparingly. Using too many quotes can suggest you don't fully understand the text you are referring to.
In scientific writing, you should generally paraphrase from sources, rather than quote directly. Quoting more extended sections of text tends to be more common in arts and humanities subjects where it may be appropriate to quote frequently from the literature that is being analysed.
As you take notes, ensure you clearly mark where you have quoted directly from the source.
If you use a direct quotation from an author, you should:
- enclose it in quotation marks
- give the author, date and page number(s) that the quotation was taken from, in brackets.
If you are quoting from a website or webpage that does not have page numbers, you do not need to include anything to indicate this in the citation.
"Language is subject to change, and is not caused by unnecessary sloppiness, laziness or ignorance" (Aitchison, 1981, p.67).
Quotations more than two lines long
If the quotation is more than two lines:
- separate it from the rest of the paragraph by one free line above and below
- indent at left and right margins
- it may be in a smaller point size
- it is preceded by a colon
- it does not use quotation marks
- the citation includes author, date and page number(s) that the quotation was taken from.
One answer to this is that language has always been subject to change, just as everything else in the world is, and we should not feel that this is a bad thing. As Aitchison (1981, p.16) puts it:
Language, then, like everything else, gradually transforms itself over the centuries. There is nothing surprising in this. In a world where humans grow old, tadpoles change into frogs, and milk turns into cheese, it would be strange if language alone remained unaltered. In spite of this, large numbers of intelligent people condemn and resent language change, regarding alterations as due to unnecessary sloppiness, laziness or ignorance.
Aitchison clearly sees every change in language as neither good nor bad, but inevitable...
Editing a quote
You may want to make minor changes to a direct quotation. This is possible (as long as you don't change the meaning), but you must follow the rules.
- If you omit parts of the quotation, use an ellipsis. An ellipsis consists of three dots (...). Do not begin or end a direct quotation with ellipsis points. The reader already assumes that the quote has been excerpted from a larger work.
- If you want to insert your own words, or different words, into a quotation, put them in square brackets [ ].
- If you want to draw attention to an error in a quotation, for example a spelling mistake or wrong date, do not correct it; write [sic] in square brackets.
- If you want to emphasise something in a quotation that is particularly relevant to your essay, put the emphasised words in italics, and state that the emphasis is your own.
- If the original has italics, state that the italics are in the original.
Language changes are natural and inevitable. It has been argued that language:
gradually transforms itself over the centuries. In a world where [everything changes], it would be strange if language alone remained unaltered. In spite of this, large numbers of intelligent people condemn and resent language change (Aitchison, 1981, p.16, my italics).
According to Smith (1992, p.45), "Aitcheson [sic] appears to believe that everything changes; but this is questionable" (italics in original).