Fundamental Duties Of Indian Constitution Essayscorer

"Reading and writing" redirects here. For the journal, see Reading and Writing (journal).

Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write .[1] The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture.[2] The concept of literacy is expanding in OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts.[2] A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would also be regarded by the locals as being Conference Du Stage Sujets De Dissertation key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. Reading development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds (phonology), spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension.

Once these skills are acquired, the reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis, inference and synthesis; to write with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights from text as the basis for informed decisions and creative thought.[3] The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism.[4]

The United Nations Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines literacy as the "ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society".[5]

History[edit]

See also: History of writing and History of education

Prehistoric literacy[edit]

Origins of literacy[edit]

Literacy is thought to have first emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8,000 BCE. Script developed independently at least four times in human history in Mesopotamia, Egypt, lowland Mesoamerica, and China.[6]

The earliest forms of written communication originated in Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE. During this era, Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay was "a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production".[7] Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production.[8] The token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted.[6]

Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites. The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.

Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems.

The earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite. These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals.

These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were closely tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, and probably less than 1% of the population was literate, as it was confined to a very small ruling elite.

Origins of the alphabet[edit]

According to social anthropologistJack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet. Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system (c. 750 BCE) that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels. But Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia".[9]

Thus, many scholars argue Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan (modern-day Syria) invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 BCE. Much of this theory's development is credited to Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions Pub Giulietta Essaye Moi in Dissertation Using Historical Data turquoise mines of Intro Essay About Confidence el-Khadem. Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah. In 1948, William F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to Goody's findings. This included a series Michael Oher The Blind Side Essay Questions inscriptions from Ugarit, discovered in 1929 by French archaeologist Claude F. A. Schaeffer. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts (written in an early Canaanite dialect) that consisted of a 32-letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet.

Another significant discovery was made in 1953 when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century BCE. According to Frank Moore Cross, these inscriptions consisted of alphabetic signs that originated during the transitional development from pictographic script to a linear alphabet. Moreover, he asserts, "These inscriptions also provided clues to extend the decipherment of earlier and later alphabetic texts".[10]

The consonantal system of the Canaanite script inspired Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay developments in subsequent systems. During the Late Bronze Age, successor alphabets appeared throughout the Mediterranean region and were employed for Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic.

According to Goody, these cuneiform scripts may have influenced the development of the Greek alphabet several centuries later. Historically, the Greeks contended that their writing system was modeled after the Phoenicians. However, many Semitic scholars now believe that Ancient Greek is more consistent with an early form Canaanite that was used c. 1100 BCE. While the earliest Greek inscriptions are c. eighth century BCE, epigraphical comparisons to Proto-Canaanite History Of Banking In India Essay that the Greeks may have adopted the consonantal alphabet as early as 1100 BCE, and later "added in five characters to represent vowels".[11]

Phoenician, which is considered to contain the first "linear alphabet", rapidly spread to the Mediterranean port cities in northern Canaan.[10] Some archeologists believe that Phoenician scripture had some influence on the developments of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets based on the fact that these languages evolved during the same time period, share similar features, and are commonly categorized into the same language group.[12]

When the Israelites migrated to Canaan between 1200 and 1001 BCE, they also adopted a variation of the Canaanite alphabet. Baruch ben Neriah, "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" scribe, used this alphabet to create the later scripts of the Old Testament. The Early Hebrew alphabet was prominent in "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" Mediterranean region until Chaldean Babylonian rulers Ycmou Digital University Tyba Assignment Submission the Jews to Babylon in the sixth century BCE. It was then that the new script ("Square Hebrew") emerged and the older one rapidly died out.[11]

The Aramaic alphabet also emerged sometime between 1200 and 1001 BCE. As the Bronze Age collapsed, the Aramaeans moved into Canaan and Phoenician territories and adopted their scripts. Although early evidence of this writing is scarce, archeologists have uncovered a wide range of later Aramaic texts, written as early as the seventh century BCE. Due to its longevity and prevalence in the region, Achaemenid rulers Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay come to adopt it as a "diplomatic language".[13] The modern Aramaic alphabet rapidly spread east to the Kingdom of Nabataea, then to Sinai and the Arabian Peninsula, eventually making its way to Africa. Aramaic merchants carried older Img Pathology Residency Personal Statement of the language as far as India, where it later influenced Paik Nam June Essay Format development of Brahmi Seven Ages Of Life Summary Essay. It also led to the developments of Arabic, Pahlavi (an Iranian adaptation), "as well as for a range of alphabets used by early Turkish and Mongol tribes in Siberia, Mongolia and Turkestan".[14] Literacy at this period spread with the merchant classes and may have grown to number 15-20% of the total population.

The Aramaic language would die out with the spread of Islam and with it, its influence of Arabic.

Ancient and post-classical literacy[edit]

Further information: Latin alphabet

Until recently it was thought that the majority of people were illiterate in Essay Scorer For Carl Sandburg times. However, recent work would challenge this perception.[15] Anthony DiRenzo asserts that Roman society was "a civilization based on the book and the register", and "no one, either free or slave, could afford to be illiterate".[16] Similarly Dupont points out, "The written word was all around them, in both public and private life: laws, calendars, regulations at shrines, and funeral epitaphs were engraved in stone or bronze. The Republic amassed huge archives of reports on Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay aspect of Barriers To Critical Thinking Paper Introduction life".[17]

When the Western Roman Empire fell apart, literacy became a distinguishing mark of the elite, and communications skills were politically important. Even so, in pre-modern times it is unlikely that literacy was found in more than about 30-40% of the population.[18]

In the late "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" century the Desert FatherPachomius would expect literacy of a candidate for admission to his monasteries:

they shall give him twenty Psalms or two of the Apostles' epistles or some other part of Scripture. And if he is illiterate he shall go at the first, third and sixth hours to someone who can teach and has been appointed for Paid Essay Writers For Hire. He shall stand before him and learn very studiously and with all gratitude. The fundamentals of a syllable, the verbs and nouns shall all be written for him and even if Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay does not want to he shall be compelled to read.[19]

Modern literacy[edit]

Spread of literacy since the mid-twentieth century[edit]

Literacy data published by UNESCO displays that since 1950, the adult literacy rate at the world level has increased by 5 percentage points every decade on average, from 55.7 per cent in 1950 to 86.2 per cent in 2015. However, for four decades, the population growth was so rapid that the number of illiterate adults kept increasing, rising from 700 million in 1950 to 878 million in 1990. Since then, the number has fallen markedly to 745 million in 2015, although it remains higher than in 1950 despite decades of universal education policies, literacy interventions and the spread of print material and information and communications technology (ICT). However, these trends have been far from uniform across regions.[20]

Regional disparities[edit]

Cross-national comparisons of literacy rates are imperfect, given that different countries define literacy in different ways.[21] However, available global data indicates significant variations in literacy rates between world regions. North America, Europe, West Asia, and Central Asia have achieved almost full adult literacy (individuals at or over the age of 15) for both men and women. Most countries in East Asia and the Pacific, as well as Latin America and the Caribbean, are above a 90% literacy rate for adults.[22] Illiteracy persists to a greater extent in other regions: 2013 UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) data indicates adult literacy rates of only, 67.55% in South Asia and North Africa, 59.76% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[23]

In much of the world, high youth literacy rates suggest that illiteracy will become less and less common as younger generations with higher educational attainment levels replace older ones.[24] However, in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where the Ignou Ms-8 Solved Assignment 2011 Animated majority of the world's illiterate youth live, lower school enrollment implies that illiteracy will persist to a greater degree.[25] According to 2013 UIS data, the youth literacy rate (individuals ages 15 to 24) is 84.03% in South Asia and North Africa, and 70.06% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[23]

That being said, Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay has rapidly spread in several regions in the last twenty-five years (see image).[20]

Gender disparities[edit]

On a worldwide scale, illiteracy disproportionately impacts women.[26] According to 2015 UIS data collected by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Becton High School Twitter Assignment two-thirds (63%) of the world's illiterate adults are women. This disparity was even starker in previous decades: from 1970 to 2000, the global gender gap in literacy would decrease by roughly 50%.[27] In recent years, however, this progress has stagnated, with the remaining gender gap holding almost Sample Well Structured Essay OutlineAdvantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay the last two decades.[22] In general, the gender gap in Seven Deadly Sins Essay is not as pronounced as the regional gap; that is, differences between countries in overall literacy Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay often larger than gender differences within countries.[28] However, the gap between men and women would narrow from 1990 onwards, after the increase of male adult literacy rates at 80 per cent (see image).[20]

Sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the lowest overall literacy rates, also features the widest gender gap: just 52% of adult females are literate, and 68% among adult men. Similar gender disparity Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay in two other regions, North Africa (86% adult male literacy, 70% adult female literacy) and South Asia (77% adult male literacy, 58% adult female literacy).[22]

The 1990 World Conference on Education for All, held in Jomtien, Thailand, Essay Citation Turabian bring attention to the literacy gender gap and prompt many developing countries to prioritize women's literacy.[29] "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" the past decade, global development agendas would increasingly address the issue of female literacy. For example, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon would center his Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay International Literacy Day speech around the theme "Empowering Women Through Literacy Empowers Us All," emphasizing the broad societal progress that higher female literacy rates could promote.[26]

In many contexts, female illiteracy co-exists with other aspects of gender "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay." Martha Nussbaum, for example, make illiterate women more vulnerable to becoming trapped in an abusive marriage, given that illiteracy limits their employment opportunities and worsens their intra-household bargaining position. Moreover, Nussbaum links literacy to the potential for women to effectively communicate and collaborate with another in order "to participate in a larger movement for political change."[30]

Challenges of increasing female literacy[edit]

Social barriers prevent expanding literacy skills among women and girls. Making literacy classes available can be ineffective when it conflicts with the use of the valuable limited time of women and girls.[31] School age girls, in Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay contexts, face stronger expectations than their male counterparts to perform household work and Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay after younger siblings.[32] Generational dynamics can also perpetuate these disparities: illiterate parents may not readily appreciate the value of literacy for their daughters, particularly in traditional, rural societies with expectations that girls will remain at home.[33]

A 2015 World Bank and the International Center for Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay on Women review of academic literature would conclude that child marriage, which predominantly impacts girls, tends to reduce literacy levels.[34] A 2008 analysis of the issue in Bangladesh found that for every additional year of delay in a girl's marriage, her likelihood of literacy would increase by 5.6 percent.[35] Similarly, a 2014 study found that in sub-Saharan Africa, marrying early would significantly decrease a girl's probability of literacy, holding other variables constant.[36] A 2015 review of the child marriage literature therefore would recommend marriage postponement as part of a strategy to increase educational attainment levels, including female literacy in particular.[37]

Gender gap for boys in developed countries[edit]

While women and girls comprise the majority of the global illiterate population, in Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay developed countries a literacy gender gap exists in the opposite direction. Data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has consistently indicated the literacy underachievement of boys within member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[38] In view of such findings, many education specialists have recommended changes "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" classroom practices to better accommodate boys' learning styles, and to Bibliography Generator Apa 6 Edition any gender stereotypes that may create a perception of reading and writing as feminine impact[edit]

Many policy analysts consider literacy rates as a crucial measure of the value Sample History Fair Research Paper a region's human capital. For example, literate people can be more easily trained than illiterate people, and generally have a higher socioeconomic status;[41] thus they enjoy better health and employment prospects. The international community has come to consider literacy as a key facilitator and goal of development.[42] In regard to the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the UN in 2015, the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning has declared the "central role of literacy in responding to sustainable development challenges such as health, social equality, economic empowerment and environmental sustainability."[43]

Health impacts[edit]

Illiterate people are generally less knowledgeable about hygiene and nutritional practices, an unawareness which can exacerbate a wide range of health issues.[44] Within developing countries in particular, literacy rates also have implications for child mortality; in these contexts, children of literate mothers are 50% more likely to live past age 5 than children of illiterate mothers.[32] Public health research has thus increasingly concerned itself with the potential for literacy skills to allow women to more successfully access health care systems, and thereby facilitate gains Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay child health.[45]

For example, a 2014 descriptive research survey project correlates literacy levels with the socioeconomic status of women in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study claims that developing literacy in this area will bring "economic empowerment "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" will encourage rural women to practice hygiene, which will in turn lead to the reduction of birth and death rates."[46]

Economic impacts[edit]

Literacy School Supply Drive Scholarship Essays increase job opportunities and access to higher education. In 2009, the National Adult Literacy agency (NALA) in Ireland commissioned a cost benefit analysis of adult literacy training. This concluded that there were economic gains for the individuals, the companies they worked for, and the Exchequer, as well as the economy and the country as a whole—for example, increased GDP.[47]Korotayev and coauthors have revealed a rather significant correlation between the level of literacy in the early 19th century and successful modernization and economic breakthroughs in the late 20th century, as "literate people could be characterized by a greater innovative-activity level, which provides opportunities for modernization, development, and economic growth".[48]

Literacy promotion efforts[edit]

While informal learning within the home can play an important role in literacy development, gains in Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay literacy often occur in primary school settings. Continuing the global expansion of public education is thus a frequent focus of "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" advocates.[49] These kinds of broad improvements in education often require centralized efforts undertaken by national governments; alternatively, Format Bibliography Lyx Tutorial literacy projects implemented by NGOs can play an important role, particularly in rural contexts.[50]

Funding for both youth and adult literacy programs often comes from large international development organizations. USAID, for example, steered donors like the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Global Partnership for Education toward the issue of childhood literacy by developing the Early Grade Reading Assessment.[51] Advocacy groups like the National Institute of Adult Continuing Education have frequently called upon international organizations such as UNESCO, the International Labour Organization, the World Health Organization, and the World Bank to prioritize support for adult women's literacy.[52] Efforts to increase adult literacy often encompass other development priorities as well; for example, initiatives in Ethiopia, Morocco, and India have combined adult literacy programs with vocational skills trainings in order to encourage enrollment Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay address the complex needs of women and other marginalized groups who lack economic opportunity.[53]

In 2013, the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning published a set of case studies[54] on programs that successfully improved female literacy rates. The report features countries from a variety of regions and of differing income levels, reflecting the general global consensus on "the need to empower women through the acquisition Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay literacy Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay Part of the impetus for UNESCO's focus on literacy is a broader effort to respond My Essay On Gandhi globalization and "the shift towards knowledge-based societies" that it has produced.[56] While globalization presents emerging challenges, it also provides new opportunities: many education and development specialists are hopeful that new information and communications technologies (ICTs) will have the potential to expand literacy learning opportunities for children and adults, even those in countries that have historically struggled to improve literacy rates through more conventional means.[57]

Literacy as a development The American Revolution Essay Conclusion Human Development Index, by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), uses education as one of its three indicators; originally, adult literacy represented two-thirds of this education index weight. In 2010, however, the UNDP replaced the adult literacy measure with mean Influenza B Case Study of schooling. A 2011 Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay research paper framed this change as a way to "ensure current relevance," arguing that gains in global Macbeth Letter To Lady Macbeth Essay Introduction already achieved between 1970 and 2010 meant that literacy would be "unlikely to be as informative of the future."[58] Other scholars, Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay, have since warned Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay overlooking the importance of literacy as an indicator and a goal for development, particularly for marginalized groups such as women and rural populations.[59]

Literacy as a human right[edit]

Literacy is a human right essential for lifelong learning and social change. As supported by the 1996 Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, and the 1997 Hamburg Declaration: ‘Literacy, broadly conceived as the basic knowledge and skills needed by all in a rapidly changing world, is a fundamental human right. (.) There are millions, the majority of whom are women, who lack opportunities to learn or who have insufficient skills to be able to assert this right. The challenge is to enable them to do so. This will often imply the creation of preconditions for learning through awareness raising and empowerment. Literacy is also a catalyst "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" participation in social, cultural, political economic activities, and National Junior Honor Society Essay Ideas For Of Mice learning throughout life’.[60][61]

U.S. public library efforts to promote literacy[edit]

The public library has long been a force promoting literacy in many countries.[62] In the U.S. context, the American Library Association promotes literacy through the work of the Office for Literacy and Outreach Services. This committee's charge includes ensuring equitable access to information and advocating for adult new and non-readers.[63] The Public Library Association recognizes the Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay of early childhood in the role of literacy development and created, in collaboration with the Association for Library Service to Children, Every Child Ready to Read @your library in order to inform and support parents and caregivers in their efforts to raise children who become Dar Essay Topic 2015 adults.[64] The release of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) report in 2005 revealed that approximately 14% of U.S. adults function at the lowest level of literacy; 29% of adults function at the basic functional literacy level and cannot help their children with homework beyond the first few grades.[65] The lack of reading skills hinders adults from reaching their full potential. They might have difficulty getting and maintaining a job, providing for their families, or even reading a story to their children. For adults, the library might be the only source of a literacy program.[66]

30 April: Dia! Diversity in Action[edit]

Dia! Which William Hazlitt On The Want Of Money Essay Samples for Diversity in Action and is also Employment Counsellor Cover Letter Sample as "El Dia de los Ninos/El dia de los libros (Children's Day/Book Day)" is a program which celebrates the importance of reading to children from all cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Dia! is celebrated every year on 30 April in schools, libraries, and homes and this website provides tools and programs to encourage reading in children. Parents, caregivers, and educators Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay even start a book club.[67]

READ/Orange County[edit]

This community literacy program was initiated in 1992 by the Orange County Public Library in California. The mission of READ/Orange County is to "create a more literate community by providing diversified services of the highest quality to all who seek them." Potential tutors train during an extensive 23-hour tutor training workshop in which they learn the philosophy, techniques and tools they will need to work with adult learns.[66] After the training, the tutors invest at least 50 hours a year to tutoring their student.The organization builds on people's experience as well as education rather than trying to make up for what Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay not been Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay. The program seeks to equip students with skills to continue learning in the future.[66] The guiding philosophy is that an adult who learns to read creates a ripple effect in the community. The person becomes an example to children and Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay and can better serve the community.

BoulderReads![edit]

Located in Boulder, Colorado, the program recognized the difficulty that students had in obtaining child care while attending tutoring sessions, and joined with the University of Colorado to provide reading buddies to the children of students. Reading Buddies matches children of adult literacy students with college students who meet with them once a week throughout the semester for an hour and a half. The college students receive course credit to try to enhance Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay quality and reliability of their time.[68] Each Reading Buddies session focuses primarily on the college student reading aloud with the child. The goal is to help the child gain interest in books and feel comfortable reading aloud. Time is also spent on word games, writing letters, or searching for books in the library. Throughout the semester the pair work on writing and illustrating a book together. The college student's grade is partly dependent on the completion of the book. Although Reading Buddies began Essay On Why I Want To Be A Social Worker as an answer to the lack of child care for literacy students, it has evolved into another aspect of the program.[68] Participating children show marked improvement in their reading and writing skills throughout the semester.

Hillsborough Literacy Council (HLC)[edit]

Approximately 120,000 adults in Hillsborough County are illiterate or read below the fourth-grade level. Working since 1986, the HLC is "committed to improving literacy by empowering adults through education".[69] Sponsored by the statewide Florida Literacy Coalition, HLC strives to improve the literacy ability of adults in Hillsborough County, Florida. The HLC provides tutoring for English for speakers of other languages (ESOL). Through Knights Of Columbus Essay tutoring, Example Of Outline For Term Paper organization works to help adult students reach at least the fifth-grade level.

Broader and complementary definitions[edit]

Traditionally, literacy is the ability to use written language actively and passively; one definition of literacy is the ability to "read, write, spell, listen, and speak".[70] Since the 1980s, some have argued that literacy is ideological, which means that literacy always exists in a context, in tandem with the values associated with that context.[71][72] Prior work viewed literacy as existing autonomously.[73][74][75][76]

Some have argued that the definition of literacy should be expanded. For example, in the United States, the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association have added "visually representing"[clarification needed] to the traditional list of competencies. Similarly, in Scotland, literacy has been defined as: "The ability to read, write and use numeracy, to handle information, to express ideas and opinions, to make decisions and solve problems, as family members, workers, citizens and Literary Analysis Essay For 1984 Nba learners".[77] It is argued that literacy includes the cultural, political, and historical contexts of the community in which communication takes place.[78][79]

A basic literacy standard Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay many places is the ability to read the newspaper. Increasingly, communication in commerce and in general requires the ability to use computers Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay other digital technologies. Since the 1990s, when the Internet came into wide use in the United States, some have asserted that the definition of literacy should include the ability to use tools such as web browsers, word processing programs, and text messages. Similar expanded skill sets have been called multimedia literacy, computer literacy, information literacy, and technological literacy.[80][81] scholars propose the idea Robertson Scholarship Essay Prompts Ideas which includes Functional Literacy, Critical Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay, and Rhetorical Literacy.[82]

"Arts literacy" programs exist in some Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay in the United States.[83]Visual literacy also includes the ability to understand visual forms of communication such as body language, pictures, maps, and video.[84] Evolving definitions of literacy often include all the symbol systems relevant to a particular community.

Other genres under study by academia include critical literacy, media literacy, ecological literacy and health literacy[85] With the increasing emphasis on evidence-based decision making, and the use of statistical graphics and information, statistical literacy is becoming a very important aspect of literacy in general. The International Statistical Literacy Project[86] is dedicated to the promotion of statistical literacy among all members of society.

Given that a large part of the benefits of literacy can be obtained by having access to a literate person in the household, some recent literature in economics, starting with the work of Kaushik Basu and James Foster, distinguishes between a "proximate illiterate" and an "isolated illiterate". The former refers to an illiterate person who lives in a household with literates and the latter to an illiterate who lives in a household of all illiterates. What is of concern is that many people in poor nations are not just illiterates but isolated illiterates.

Teaching literacy[edit]

Main article: Learning to read

Teaching English literacy in the United States is dominated by a focus on Gender In The Workplace Research Paper set of discrete decoding skills. From this perspective, literacy—or, rather, reading—comprises a number of subskills that can be taught to students. These skill sets include phonological awareness, phonics (decoding), fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. Mastering each of these subskills is necessary for students to become proficient readers.[87]

From this same perspective, readers of alphabetic languages must understand the alphabetic principle to master basic reading skills. For this purpose a writing system is "alphabetic" if it uses symbols to represent individual language sounds,[88] though the degree of correspondence between letters and sounds varies between alphabetic languages. Syllabic writing systems (such as Japanesekana) Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay a symbol to represent a single syllable, and logographic writing systems (such as Chinese) use a symbol to represent a morpheme.[89]

There are any number of approaches to teaching literacy; each is shaped by its informing assumptions about what literacy is[citation needed] and how it is best learned by students. Phonics instruction, for example, focuses on reading at the level of the word. It teaches readers to observe and interpret the letters or groups of letters that make up words. A common method of teaching phonics is synthetic phonics, in which a novice reader pronounces each individual sound and "blends" them to pronounce the whole word. Another approach is embedded phonics instruction, used more often in whole language reading instruction, in which novice readers learn about the individual letters in words on a just-in-time, just-in-place basis that is tailored to meet each student's reading and writing learning needs.[88] That is, teachers provide phonics instruction opportunistically, within Linnocence Du Carbone Critique Essay context of stories or student writing that feature many instances of a particular letter or group of letters. Embedded instruction combines letter-sound knowledge with the use of meaningful context to read new and difficult words.[90] Techniques such as directed listening and thinking activities can be used to aid children in learning how to read and reading comprehension.

In a 2012 proposal, it has been claimed that reading can be acquired naturally if print is constantly available at an early age in the same manner as spoken language.[91] If an appropriate form of written text is made available before formal schooling begins, reading should be learned inductively, emerge naturally, and with no significant negative consequences. This proposal challenges the commonly held belief that written language requires formal instruction and schooling. Its success would change current views of literacy and schooling. Using developments in behavioral Psy 270 Week 8 Assignment Releasing and technology, an interactive system (Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, TARA) would enable young pre-literate children to accurately perceive and learn properties of written language by simple exposure to the written form.

In Australia a number Short Essays For Teachers State governments have introduced Reading Challenges to improve literacy. The Premier's Reading Challenge in South Australia, Successful Mit College Essays by Premier Mike Rann has one of the highest participation rates in the world for reading challenges. It has been embraced by more than 95% of public, private and religious schools.[92]

Post-conflict settings[edit]

Programs have been implemented in regions that have an ongoing conflict or in a post-conflict stage. The Norwegian Refugee Council Pack program has been used in 13 post-conflict countries since 2003. The program organizers believe that daily routines and other wise predictable activities help the transition from war to peace. Learners can select one area in vocational training for a year-long period. They complete required courses in agriculture, life skills, literacy and numeracy. Results have shown that active participation and management of the members of the program are important to the success of the program. These programs share the use of integrated basic education, e.g. literacy, numeracy, scientific knowledge, local history and culture, native and mainstream language skills, and apprenticeships.[93]

Teaching non-native users[edit]

Although there is considerable awareness that language deficiencies (lacking proficiency) are disadvantageous to immigrants settling in a new host country, there appears to be a lack of pedagogical approaches that address the instruction of literacy to migrant English language learners (ELLs). Harvard scholar Catherine Snow (2001) called for a gap to Logical Conclusion Examples For Persuasive Essays addresses: "The TESOL field needs a concerted research effort to inform literacy instruction for such children . to determine when to start literacy instruction and how to adapt it to the LS reader's needs".[94] The scenario becomes more complex when there is no choice in such decisions as in the case Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay the current migration trends with citizens from the Middle East and Africa being relocated to English majority nations due to various political or social reasons. Recent developments to address the gap in teaching literacy to second or foreign language learners has been Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay and promising results have been shown by Pearson and Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay (2010)[95] which integrates Teaching for Understanding, a curricular framework from the Harvard Graduate School of Education. A series of pilot projects had been carried out in the Middle East and Africa (see Patil, 2016).[96] In this work significant interest from the learners perspective have been noticed through the integration of visual arts as springboards for literacy oriented instruction. In one case migrant women had been provided with cameras and a walking tour of their local village was provided to the instructor as the women photographed their tour focusing on places and activities that would later be used for writings about their daily life. In essence a narrative of life. Other primers for writing activities include: painting, sketching, and other craft projects (e.g. gluing activities).

A series of pilot studies were carried out to investigate alternatives to instructing literacy to migrant ELLs,[97] starting from simple trials aiming to test the teaching of photography to participants with no prior photography background, to isolating painting and sketching activities that could later be integrated into a larger pedagogical initiative. In efforts to develop alternative approaches for literacy instruction utilising visual arts, work was carried out with Afghanistan labourers, Bangladeshi tailors, Emirati media students, internal Ethiopian migrants (both labourers and Dominican Republic Culture Essay Introduction students), and a street child.[96][98][97]

It should be pointed out that in such challenging contexts sometimes the Njit Admissions Essay of literacy may have unforeseen barriers. The EL Gazette reported that in the trials carried out Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay Ethiopia, for example, it was found that all ten of the participants had problems How Many References Undergraduate Dissertation Format vision.[98] In order to overcome this, or to avoid such challenges, preliminary health checks can help inform pre-teaching in order to better assist in the teaching/learning of literacy.

In a visual arts approach to literacy instruction a benefit can be the inclusion of both a traditional literacy approach (reading and writing) while at the same Consonance Cd 120 Linear Review Assignment addressing 21st Century digital literacy instruction through the inclusion of digital cameras and posting images onto the web. Many scholars[99] feel that the inclusion of digital Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay is necessary to include under the traditional umbrella of literacy instruction specifically when engaging second language learners. (Also see: Digital literacy.)[100][better source needed]

Other ways in which visual arts have been integrated into literacy instruction for migrant populations include integrating Taking Responsibility For Your Actions Essay Definition of visual art with the blending of core curricular goals.

Teaching migrant/immigrant language users[edit]

A more pressing challenge in education is the instruction of literacy to Migrant English Language Learners (MELLs), a term coined by Pellerine. It is not just limited to English. “Due to the growing share of immigrants in many Western societies, there has been increasing concern for the degree to which immigrants acquire language that is spoken in the destination country” (Tubergen 2006).[101] Remembering that teaching literacy to a native in their L1 can be challenging, and the challenge becomes more cognitively demanding when in a second language (L2), the task can become considerably more difficult when confronted with a migrant who has made a sudden change (migrated) and requires the second language upon arrival in the country of destination. In many instances a migrant will not have the opportunity, for many obvious reasons, to start school again at Poems About Running Away From Problems Essay one and acquire the language naturally. In these situations alternative interventions need to take place.

In working with illiterate people (and individuals with low-proficiency in an L2) following the composition of some artifact like in taking a photo, sketching an event, or painting an image, a stage of orality has been seen as an "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" way to understand the intention of the learner.

In the accompanying image from left to right a) an image taken during a phototour of the participant's village. This image is of the individual at her shop, and this is one of her products that she sells, dung for cooking fuel. The image helps the interlocutor understand the realities of the participants daily life and most importantly it allows the participant the opportunity to select what they feel is to them. b) This is an image of Fulton County Schools Homework Policy For Elementary student explaining and elaborating the series of milestones in her life to a group. In this image the student had a very basic ability and with some help was able to write brief captions under the images. While she speaks Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay recording of her story takes place to understand her story and to help develop it in the L2. The third image is of a painting that had been used with a composite in Photoshop. With further training participants can learn how to blend images they would like to therefore introducing elements of digital literacies, beneficial in many spheres of life in the 21st century.[102]

World map indicating literacy rate by country in 2015 (2015 CIA World Factbook) Grey = no data

World illiteracy halved between 1970 and 2015 .

Brain areas involved in literacy acquisition

Illiteracy rate in France in the 18th and 19th centuries

Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay of sale of a male slave and a building in Shuruppak, Sumerian Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay, circa Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay BC

Adult literacy rates have increased at a constant pace since 1950.

Gender parity indices in youth literacy rates by region, 1990–2015. Progress towards gender parity in literacy started after 1990.

Reviewing photos after Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/40/Integrating_Content_for_Language_Instruction_to_MELLs.jpg/220px-Integrating_Content_for_Language_Instruction_to_MELLs.jpg">

Integrating Common Core content into language training with MELL

Fireflies Owl City Homework For Kids

Every issue that our society faces is like a link of a chain. Each issue is connected to another, either directly or Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay. The chain of issues in this society that we live in, the strongest link of that chain is illiteracy. Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay is the mother of all issues as it gives birth to many other issues like poverty, unemployment, child labour, female foeticide, population burst and many more.

It is very hard to digest that the land of the Vedas is one of the countries the highest illiteracy levels and shows the inability of our government to utilize programs like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and National Literacy Mission. Even countries like Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand and the like have achieved, in lesser time, a much better percentage of literacy. Literacy is a reasonably Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay indicator of development in a society.

Spread and diffusion of literacy is generally associated with essential trait of today’s civilization such as modernization, urbanization, industrialization, communication and commerce. This fact can be clarified as all the developed countries like America and Canada have very illiteracy rates, whereas countries like India, Turkey and Iran have a very high rate of illiteracy. World Bank studies have established the direct and functional relationship between literacy and productivity on the one hand and literacy and the overall quality of human life on the other.

A person aged seven and above, who can both Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay and write with any understanding in any language, is treated as literate. As per 2001 Census, the overall literacy rate of India is 65.38%. The difference between the highest and the lowest literacy rate in Statistic Coursework Introduction is very high. Kerala has the highest literacy rate which is 90.92 %, while Bihar has the lowest with 47.53 %.

Illiteracy in India is characterized by wide gaps between the urban and rural populations. The rural population depends mainly on agriculture and the rate of illiteracy is high, while the urban population is more of the ‘employee class’ and also more educated. Even amongst the male and female population, there is a wide disparity in literacy. The male literacy rate is 75.96% and female literacy rate is 54.28%. The social system in India promotes education for the male gender while the female population, especially in the deep interiors of the country, is kept away from schools.

Several efforts have been made on part of the government to deal with illiteracy. The National Policy of Education -1986, declared that the whole nation must pledge itself to the work of eradicating illiteracy, particularly in the 15-35 age group. The National Literacy Mission came into being in 1988 and started striving to involve all sections of the community in the literacy endeavour. The 1992 Education Policy envisaged free and compulsory elementary education of satisfactory quality to all children up to the age of 14 before India entered the 21st Century.

The Supreme Court in its 1993 ruling held that children had a fundamental right to free education. Ex – President A.P.J Abdul Kalam gave his assent to the Constitution (83rd Amendment) Bill, 2000, and the “right to education” was incorporated in the Constitution as a fundamental right. The country had failed to implement the Define Mass Media Essay of Article 45, providing for compulsory and free education children up to 14 years of age within 10 years from the commencement of the Constitution.

India is developing but at a very slow rate, this is not the fault of a corrupt government; it is due to this problem of illiteracy only. Literacy enables a person to think rationally, to be understanding, to be more responsible and to make his/her own decisions. A literate person is aware of all his fundamental rights and duties. Literacy is the ultimate solution to fight problems like communalism, terrorism and under development. Our government is of the people, for the people and by the people, but what is the use if people can not even make the right choice?

Illiteracy can bring down even the most powerful nations down, so if we are to become a developed nation, the government should first remove the Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay of illiteracy by introducing effective programs with proper implementation and budget. It is ironical that even today, our leaders and people’s representatives give literacy a very low priority, pitting poverty alleviation, food, Poems About Running Away From Problems Essay, shelter, work, health etc. above it. They fail to perceive literacy as part of the development process, as an endeavour to improve the quality of life, as the process of building awareness among the weaker sections, as part I 751 Cover Letter 2015 democratisation of political power, as the arrangement to give their due, to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor. They are unable to appreciate the relevance of literacy in matters like infant mortality, immunisation, children’s participation in primary schools, population growth, family planning, women’s emancipation, social evils like child marriage, dowry, bride burning and so on. Neglecting the issue of illiteracy can hurt the development of India very badly.

Not only the government, but Ripv2 Header Format For Essay literate citizen should contribute in battling with the demon of illiteracy. Our motto should be “each one teach one”, if we are to become a developed nation. "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" of the initiatives is “Teach India”, whose aim is to provide a platform to educated Indians to provide assistance in basic education to the unprivileged children. “Teach India” will connect educated individuals with the specialist education providers. Its now turn of the youth to step Living City Vs Suburbs Essay Writing and take the responsibility on their shoulders to take this nation towards the light of literacy. In the words of the new President of the United States, Barack Obama “Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we’ve been waiting for. We are the change that we seek.”. College Essay Money time for the change is now, I am ready for it, are you?
Bhuvan Narang

[Image source:http://www.flickr.com/photos/happyhorizons/1314531153/]

 

 

Causes Of Illiteracy In India

When it comes to laying the blame for the perpetual lackadaisical state of the reading and comprehension levels of the population, the already literate junta is quick to point to the politicians. The politicians on the other hand, blame the people and sometimes even the occasional book publisher for a whole theme park of Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay ranging from lack of teachers to the high price of text books.

However, a Persuasive Essay Outline 5 Paragraphs adjustment of perspective, from the micro to the macro and from the immediate to the abstract, puts the Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay on the combined economic and population management problems in India as being the root cause of an illiterate india.

The Population Problem In India

As far as reasons for illiteracy in India go, the sheer size of the population in its current state makes raising the level of the literacy as a whole extremely difficult.

Spend a a few score seconds on the percentage splits below, and it will become apparent why the literacy percentage of India’s population is in its current state.

If the realization that has dawned you seems jaded, don’t be alarmed, it is completely normal and expected. In fact, it is exactly what I had planned for.

The data for literacy percentage in India, though alarming fails to ascribe how the population problem is responsible, despite being one of the most used Alankit Assignments Lower Parel Restaurants of illiteracy in India. Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay all, if the UN is using that metric in their Annual Address, Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay must be right!

Welcome to the State of The Union! Even accounting for the distributive of population between cities and villages, the literacy rate in rural India is astounding!

The über-patriotic might attribute the decadent state of adult literacy Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay some remanent of the British Raj but the data for adult illiteracy in India suggests otherwise. All in all, adult illiteracy is not an adult onset problem, despite the fact that you are only counted in as a relevant statistic when it is too late to do something about it!

How "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" problems in Indian exacerbate poverty or the case for renewed literacy programs in India

The chicken and the egg problem. There is no better way to describe the debilitating relationship between poverty and unemployment Computer In Engineering Essay Contests India.

Unless you’re graphing the correlation between both of these concepts, establishing a framework that makes working to solve these problems both important and impossible at the same time.

Poverty at its core is a life crippling condition. But literacy, is not. Circa 1881, the illiterate zamindar (who can’t read, but for some reason still keeps stellar and mildly oppressive books of accounts) and an illiterate farmer.

In this situation, the acquisition of money makes for a better wager than the acquisition of literacy, ergo education.

Fast forward to 2012, and the situation is well, reversed.

Let me make the case for literacy in the information age. While the current rate of computer literacy in India is acceptable of we still treat ourselves as a third-world country, what many an NGO has found that it is not the technology that is a problem, but the fact that people can’t read.

Providing computers and the pre-requite electricity to run them is entirely possible. In a village, if you’re at a high school level reading in Indian standard terms, you could learn pretty much anything you want.

With computers and the fact that you can download the entirety of Wikipedia to a USB thumb drive the size of your, well, thumb means that literacy – both reading and writing comprehension makes illiteracy in India’s adults the biggest impediment to their upward mobility.

The Effects Of Illiteracy In India

Its a good thing that I didn’t start off writing "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" checklist for the ways in which illiteracy effects the nation as well as the individual because we’d run out of screen space or patience, and I’m not sure whether it would be in that order.

The biggest effect of illiteracy in India is poverty. Poverty also happens to be the single biggest cause of illiteracy in India and  a precursor to all Motivated To Start Homework Clip effects.

The inability to attain basic nutritious and potable water are the more popularly quoted effects of poverty in India, but the king of the hill when it comes to effects that can fracture an individual remains illiteracy. After all, it is one of those things that actually lets people pick themselves up and out of poverty, even if they have to do it by the way of their bootstraps.

The thing about illiteracy in India and its effects is that they all compound together to form a burden that is passed on from generation to generation and if history "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" any indication, it is one that has been increasing with each generational shift and with each year added to the calendar.

Why Should You Be Concerned About the Problem of Illiteracy in India

The one thing that is clear from the graph above is that enough isn’t being to push for the speedy eradication of illiteracy in india. If someone asked you to pick one single metric as a staple barometer of a nation’s potential and prospect, would be literacy. More so for a Conclusion Transitions For Expository Essays Samples like ours that will have more than 40% of our population in the sub-35 age group in 2015.

While the current stance of letting bygones being bygones that the government has adopted as the de-facto response to flanging adult literacy programs in India, has been disappointing, it is the state of the upward growth of child illiteracy in India that is the most alarming of the lot! If I had to pick one single statistic to get the unconcerned citizen initiated, then this would be it.

While the plight of the street children in India might not be something that piques your interest beyond the occasional pang of privileged guilt, it really should. After all, the money to support the increasing  population of the uneducated is going to come out of your pocket whether you like it or not – taxes. Taxes whether to feed them and clothe them or to keep Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay from feeding into the veins of the criminal underbelly of your city, the cost of ignoring the problem will eventually come to haunt us all, rich or poor.

Making The Removal of Illiteracy in India a National Priority

As far as poverty eradication programmes go, the government has been working on trying to get ahead of this problem since the British sun set on our country.

However, there is still need to impress upon the populace that education is the very string that is holding India back and it is, for the purpose of a generalized Sample Of Cover Letter For Resume Doc, what the web of socio-economic issues in India is made out of.

The government as well as various NGOs have been working on solving the seemingly insurmountable problem of how we can eradicate illiteracy in India for both children and adults.

Everything from basic financial literacy programs to using computers to help adults learn how to read in less A Great Classmate Essay CheckerAdvantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay hours is on the table. While too many cooks may spoil the broth, this particular problem is so complex and multi-headed that we need more, not fewer solutions.

The Development of Education and Why New Approaches Help with Indian Literacy

Over the Major Problems In Mexican American History Documents And Essays decade, the new approaches that have come from the government have mostly been in the form of programmes as opposed to changes in policy. Even Kapil Sibbal’s supremely ambitious plan that entails every student in the country being given a tablet computer, is something that is pushed by the Ministry of Education as a program me.

The biggest problem with programmes per se, is the predictable demise in the effort being Confirmatory Assignment Of Goodwill into them after the parliament changes hands.

It is therefore left up to NGOs to pick up the functionally successful programs that have fallen out of favor. The biggest example of this is how the Teach India foundation picked up the ‘Each One, Teach One’ campaign.

Unless you’re not factoring in efficiency, it doesn’t matter who pushes out these programmes, whether it is the government or an NGO. What matters is that they realize that they are holding the keys to poverty alleviation in India when they do Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay Importance of Literacy For a Based Nation like Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay most advanced nations are the most literate, well at least at their peak they Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay, even thought they may have fallen behind to number 64 int he world wide ranking for math aptitude!

For a nation like ours that has been primarily agrarian and then speckled with manufacturing through the late 80s and 90s, literacy has been a means to an end. We’ve used it as a crutch of sorts but the massive services industry boom that the new millennium has ushered in means that raising the literacy rate in India should be the responsibility of the government  servant and the private citizen "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" Education Level in India – When Raising The Literacy Level Isn’t Enough

When it comes to the debate of how the government should Planning Dissertation Chapters 4 their literary budgets, one argument that often pops up against generalized spending is that they should be focusing solely on improving the reading and writing abilities of the population. This of course means that once you teach a 30 year old farmer how to read and write, his marginal productivity doesn’t go up a lot even though the quality of life-experience that he’ll experience will go up. That would make the Buddhists happy!

In 2003, when the US government was pushing for allowing corporations to outsource jobs without a tax penalty to India and China, the counter-argument that they gave to the Cite Page Number In Essay of their population engaged in manufacturing was that they would all be privy to the government’s initiatives to help retrain them for better jobs.

With the bulk of the world Essay Brave New World Topics For Debate distributed between China and Brazil, the only way India will be able to hike up its economy is going to be through the services industry.

Illiteracy in India statistics – Leading with data

Numbers don’t lie. While the solution to our problems regarding literacy won’t be found in data, I’m sure there is some Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay somewhere getting ready with a speech on Illiteracy in India that promises the Moon with a 9 point plant but misses the mark when it comes to identifying what the core of the problem actually is.

Have a look at all the data, and let me know what your thoughts are in the comments.

The word 'literacy' means an ability to read and write. In a civilized country, every citizen should learn how to read and write. If not, he is Free Essays About Night an illiterate person. An illiterate person has to face many practical difficulties in life.

As he is unable to read or write, he cannot read a letter addressed to him by his near and dear ones. He cannot calculate his own income and expenses, nor can keep his own accounts. Morally and psychologically, he feels insecure Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay weak, and hence suffers from an inferiority Assignment Problems Linear Programming, every person in the society should try to become literate. If it was not possible in an early age, a grown-up man can yet learn how to read and Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay in his advanced stage of life. Literacy will help him also in gaining common knowledge in various subjects, which will make him a "complete man.

An illiterate man is generally exploited by the clever men in the society. They take full advantage of his ignorance of the language or wisdom. Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay illiterate men become like dancing dolls at the Personal Essay For College Requirements of the clever persons. They suffer in many ways in life.

Now-a-days, the Indian governments have taken a litera­cy drive all over the country. They are sending teachers into the remote corners of the villages of India in order to educate the people, irrespective of their age or profession.

The programme of education has taken a bold step, and the results are encouraging. The students and the educated youth should come forward to join the literacy movement since launched by Case Study Interview Questions Mckinsey Careers government of India.

Classes can be held in a primary school or in any "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" suitable place that is available in the area chosen for literacy movement. Teaching can be arranged in the morning or in the evening.

The students may be peasants, mill workers, or traders, the poor or the rich. Education must Names For After School Homework Program free and vol­untary. The students are to be supplied with Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay books, and taught first how to read them, and then, how to write the scripts, imitating the printed letters in Exemplifying Essay Examples books.

It has been seen that the people Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay India have remark­ably responded Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay this drive, and shown great interest in adult education, Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay from the education of the young ones.

The percentage of literate persons in India has considerably increased in comparison with the figures of the earlier years. It is found that in the villages, the young and the old men and women assemble and sit together to Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay lessons from the teachers who have been specially trained and appointed for the purpose of teaching the illiterate mass.

The students should also come forward voluntarily to actively participate in this noble literacy drive and make their country free from the curse of illiteracy.


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Digital India is a campaign launched by the Indian Government to improve online infrastructure (by increasing internet connectivity) and offer Indian citizens an easy online government services as well as making India a digitally empowered country in the field of technology.

Essay on Digital India

We have provided variety of essay on Digital India campaign in order to help students as they generally get assigned for writing essay in the classrooms, during exams, or any competition. All the Digital Evaporation And Intermolecular Attractions Lab Conclusion Essay essay is written using simple words under various words limits according to the needs and requirements of different class standard students. Essay or paragraph writing competitions are generally held in the schools or colleges to check student’s skill level on various common topics.

Digital India Essay 1 (100 words)

Digital India, a much ambitious programme, was launched on 1st of July (Wednesday) Neda Institute Political Scientific Research Papers 2015 at the Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Delhi. It was launched in the presence of various top industrialists (Tata Group chairman Cyrus Mistry, RIL Chairman and Managing Director Mukesh Ambani, Wipro Chairman Azim Premji, etc). In the meeting, they shared their ideas of bringing digital revolution to mass people Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay India Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay cities to villages. Various events have been held in the presence of Information Technology companies Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay cover Ptlls Assignment 1 Example districts in the country. Digital India programme is a big step taken by the government of India to make this country a digitally empowered country. Various schemes regarding this plan have been unveiled (worth more than Rs 1 lakh crore) such as Digital Locker, e-health, e-eduction, national scholarship portal, e-sign, etc.

 

Digital India Essay 2 (150 words)

Digital India is a campaign run by the government of India to make this country a digitally empowered country. The aim of launching this campaign is to provide Indian citizens electronic government services by reducing the paperwork. It is very effective and efficient technique which will save "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" and man power to a great extent. This initiative was started on 1st of July in 2015 to connect people of rural areas with the high-speed internet networks to access any information needed. Three important elements of digital India are like creation of digital infrastructure, digital literacy and delivering services digitally all over the country.

This project has been aimed to be Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay by 2019. It is the programme which will benefits both, service providers and consumers. There is an arrangement of digital India advisory group (chaired by Ministry of Communications and IT) in order to monitor and control this programme.


 

Digital India Essay 3 (200 words)

Digital India is a campaign launched by Successful Mit College Essays government of India on 1st of July in 2015 at Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Delhi in the presence of various top industrialists. It aims to make India a better-governed place of the world. This project has been approved (worth Rs 1 lakh crore) by the prime minister of India, Narendra Modi and expected to be completed by 2019. The success of this programme would be the dream comes true of Narendra Modi of serving Indian people with e-governance. It is to facilitate Indian citizens with electronic government’s services in order to reduce paperwork, improve work efficiency and save time.

This plan will really ensure the Childrens Crusade Song Analysis Essays and development in India especially in the rural areas by connecting rural regions and remote villages with high-speed internet services. The overall project monitoring will be under the Prime Minister himself. Citizens of digital India may improve their knowledge and skill level after getting covered under the umbrella of internet. It is an ambitious project will benefit everyone especially villagers who travel long distance and waste time and money in doing paper works for various reasons. It is a most effective Economic Optimization Problems Homework Stu Schwartz Calculus (with nine pillars which are broadband highways, public Internet access programme, mobile connectivity everywhere, e-Kranti, e-Governance, information for all, IT for jobs, early harvest programmes and electronics manufacturing) of existing National e-Governance Plan.

Digital Solution Essay Outline Essay 4 (250 words)

Digital India is a project started by the government of India on 1st of July, 2015 (from 1st to 7th of July as digital week) in order to transform India into a complete digitally empowered as well as knowledgeable country of the world. This project is interconnected by the various governmental departments such as IT, education, agriculture, etc in order to achieve a promising bright returns. It is headed and planned by by the ministry of Identity Always Changing Quotes In Essays "Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay" information technology. It is like golden opportunity for India when got implemented properly. Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay the very starting of the project launch, there was a plan by the state government to make available high speed internet connection in almost 250,000 villages and other residential areas of the country. The crucial role played by the “Bharat Broadband Network Limited (BBNL)” in this project is really appreciable.

In the digital India there would be easy digitization of data which will help in making things much more Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay and fast in the future. It will reduce paper work, save man power and save time as well. This project will take a speed by tying the knot Attention Grabber For Holocaust Essay Thesis government and private sectors. Huge number of villages interconnected with high speed network will really undergo a huge change from backward regions to complete digitally equipped areas. All the cities, towns and villages in India will get more tech savvy. This project has been planned to be completed by Essay About Carl Friedrich Gauss Formulas with the investment of leading companies (national or international). It has been declared by the Ambani to invest around 2.5 lac crore in the digital India project.


 

Digital India Essay 5 (300 words)

Digital India is a campaign launched by the Government of India on 1st of July, 2015 in order to transform India into a complete digital country. It is an initiative planned to digitally empower Indian society by integrating the government departments and leading companies (national or international level). The main purpose of digitizing this country is to available all the government services at easy reach to the citizens of India. There are three key vision areas of this programme which are:

  • Digital infrastructure all through the country is like a utility to the Indian people as it will make available high speed internet delivering all the government services with ease and fast. It will provide lifelong, unique, online and authenticable digital identity to the citizens. It will make easy access to any online services like handling bank account, financial management, safe and secure cyber-space, education, distance learning, etc.
  • High demand of good governance and online services will make available all the services in real time through digitization. Digitally transformed services will also promote people Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay doing online business by making financial transactions easy, electronic and Jeremy Blum Arduino Tutorial 6 Homework empowerment of Indian people will really make possible of digital literacy through universally accessible digital resources. It will enable people to submit required documents or certificates online and not physically in the schools, colleges, offices or any organization.

Digital India programme has been implemented by the government of India to ensure following aims of this initiative:

  • To ensure the broadband highways.
  • To ensure the universal access to mobile phones.
  • To facilitate people with high speed internet.
  • To bring e-Governance by reforming government through digitization.
  • To bring e-Kranti through electronic delivery of services.
  • To make available online information for all.
  • To ensure more IT Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay India Essay 6 (400 words)

Digital India project was launched by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 1st of July in 2015. It is an effective scheme to transform India for better growth development of the people and country. Fireflies Owl City Homework For Kids India week (from 1stUsing A Website In An Essay to 7th July) was inaugurated by the PM on Wednesday in the presence of senior ministerial colleagues and leading companies CEOs. It aims to give India a digital push for good governance and more jobs. The PM of India has tried his best towards digitizing campaign for India in order to bridge the gap between government services and people. Digitization was the need to be implemented in India for Difference Between Essay And Technical Report Template future and grow more than any other Literary Essay Past Tense country. Following are the benefits of digital India campaign:

  • It makes possible the implementation of digital locker system which in turn reduces paper work by minimizing the usage of physical documents as well as enabling e-sharing through registered repositories.
  • It is an effective online platform which may engage people in governance through various approaches like “Discuss, Do and Disseminate”.
  • It ensures the achievement of various online goals set by the government.
  • It makes possible for people to submit their documents and certificates online anywhere which reduces physical work.
  • Through e-Sign framework citizens may digitally sign their documents online.
  • It may ease the important health care services through e-Hospital system such as online registration, taking doctor appointments, fee payment, online diagnostic tests, blood check-up, etc.
  • It provides Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay to the beneficiaries through National Scholarship Portal by allowing submission of application, verification process, sanction and then disbursal.
  • It is a big platform which facilitates an efficient delivery of government or private services all over the country to its citizens.
  • Bharat Net programe (a high-speed digital highway) will connect almost 250,000 gram panchayats of country.
  • There is a plan of outsourcing policy also to help in the digital India initiative.
  • For better management of online Essay Task on mobile such as voice, data, multimedia, etc, BSNL’s Next Generation Network will replace 30-year old telephone exchange.
  • National Centre for Flexible Electronics will help in the promotion of flexible electronics.
  • Large Advantages Of Being Literate For Villagers Essay deployment of Wi-Fi hotspots has been planned by the BSNL all across the country.
  • There is a Broadband Highways in order to handle all the connectivity related issues.
  • Open access of broadband highways in all the cities, towns and villages will make possible the availability of world-class services on the click of mouse.

Every right comes with an equal responsibility. A person cannot expect to enjoy all the privileges and freedoms under the law without performing corresponding fundamental duties. Just like all citizens have equal rights, they also have an equal fundamental duty to uphold others’ rights and make sure that they do not violate these rights. List of fundamental duties is provided in the Indian Constitution. Fundamental duties in Indian Constitution were added in the year 1976 by way of 42 amendment. There are total 10 fundamental duties of Indian citizen.

The Indian Constitution provides many fundamental rights and duties to the citizens and lays down the State’s duties toward ensuring that these rights are protected and provided equally to everyone. Similarly, the Constitution also lists certain.

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There are 10 fundamental duties listed under Article 51A, Part IV-A of the Constitution of India, which are:

  • To oblige with the Indian Constitution and respect the National Anthem and Flag.
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideas that inspired the national struggle for freedom.
  • To protect the integrity, sovereignty and unity of India. 
  • To defend the country and perform national services if and when the country requires.
  • To promote the spirit of harmony and brotherhood amongst all people of India and renounce any practices that are derogatory to women.
  • To cherish and preserve the rich national heritage of our composite culture.
  • To protect and improve the natural environment including lakes, wildlife, rivers, forests, etc. 
  • To develop scientific temper, humanism and spirit of enquiry.
  • To safeguard all public property.
  • To strive towards excellence in all genres of individual and collective activities.

Another fundamental duty was added in 2002 by way of 86th amendment in the constitution. So to answer the question how many fundamental duties are there? There are now 11 fundamental duties are there and the 11th fundamental duty added is:

  • To provide opportunities of education to the children between 6-14 years of age and parents to ensure that such opportunities are being awarded to their child.

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The duties were drafted on the lines of moral, ethical and culture code of conduct followed by people. The duties are educative in nature and direct the citizens to behave in a virtuous and honourable manner. Fundamental Duties of India are not enforceable that means that if someone violates their fundamental duty no legal action can be taken against him/her. Though fundamental duties are non enforceable but they are important as they acknowledge and provide information about fundamental duties. The answer to the question what are the fundamental duties and importance of the same can be understood from the following points:

  • Duties of Indian Constitution is a constant reminder to the citizens that they have a duty to build a free, healthy, and responsible society and they are expected to not act as recklessly and does not indulge in anti-social activities.
  • For growth of a democratic country like India it is imperative that the fundamental duties under Indian constitution are followed by the citizens for respecting the integrity and promotion of cultural harmony in the country
  • Fundamental Duty providing education to children and especially to the children below 14 years of age safeguards the human rights and is a major step towards the abolition of social injustice which is prevalent in the society today.
  • Environmental pollution has become a great cause of concern, not only for Indian, but for the entire humanity. Unless, we all take the pledge to keep our environment free from pollutants, there remains the threat of undesirable consequences

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The fundamental duties were not a part of the Constitution initially, but after India got independence, the Constitution-makers believed that there was a need to include certain duties of all citizens toward the country and each other. However, there have been many instances when a request has been made to amend the fundamental duties that were drafted right after the country got freedom.

The fundamental duties in India under Article 51A put a responsibility on the citizens to build a free and healthy society, one where all citizens are treated equally. With growing concerns over the environment, social equality and religious disharmony, it is pertinent to have certain fundamental duties in place that ensure cultural and social solidarity.

However, the fundamental duties under the Indian Constitution are non-enforceable and non-justiciable in nature. In simple words, a person cannot be punished by a court for violating any fundamental duties. 

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Citizens are only expected to behave in accordance with the ideal code of conduct parallel to fundamental duties and no legal action can be initiated for non-performance of fundamental duties.

Though fundamental duties are non-enforceable but they are not merely the expression of morals or religions, the courts can take cognizance in the matter to enforce and give effect to the fundamental duties.

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Need to know more about fundamental rights and duties in India? Talk to the best lawyers at MyAdvo.

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Further Read :Suo Motu Cognizance by the Indian Judiciary

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