Case Study I
Tina is a 17-year-old high school junior who resides with her parents and 14-year-old brother. Tina’s mother is concerned about her daughter’s recent 22-pound weight loss. Tina counts calories and exercises each morning and evening. Despite her weight loss and low-average size, Tina says that she is “fat” and she weighs herself several times a day. Tina has always felt close to her family, especially to her mother. She is an excellent student, active in cheerleading and works a part-time job. Tina’s mom tells her that she looks too thin, but Tina still believes she needs to lose more weight. Tina quickly is offended and reacts defensively. When Tina’s father encourages her to eat more, she argues with him during dinner. Tina’s brother teams up with Dad, sometimes calling Tina names. On several occasions, Tina has left the table and locked herself in her bedroom. Tina’s parents are unsure if she is showing some ordinary teenage rebellion or if she is developing an eating disorder. Until now, Tina has never given them any problems.
Case Study II
Robert is a 45-year-old married man with two adult children. He has been employed as a metallurgical engineer in a local steel mill for 20 years. Robert married his high school sweetheart. He describes their relationship as “typical.” They eat meals and attend family gatherings together but do little else as a couple. Robert spends his spare time reading, playing golf and watching TV. For the last two months, Robert has felt blue and his appetite has decreased. Because he has not been sleeping well, Robert drinks more at night. Sometimes he feels like life is hardly worth living. Robert has tried to “snap himself” out of this sour mood but nothing seems to work.
Case Study III
Martha is a 52-year-old divorced woman with three grown children. Her oldest child, Heather, is married with a good career and is expecting her first baby. Martha’s middle child, Scott, is single. He has a teaching degree and a history of drug and alcohol abuse. Carter is Martha’s youngest child. He lives at home and commutes to a local university where he is a senior. Martha works as a legal secretary and lives on a tight budget. She is considering returning to college, and maybe even dating, now that her children are older. But Martha is afraid to make a decision that she may regret. In fact, when Martha makes plans to return to school or to join an online dating site, she feels so anxious that she sometimes experiences panic attacks. Martha can’t decide if she should let her life remain status quo or if she should work through her fears holding out hope for a more fulfilling life. Martha asked her family doctor for something for anxiety, but he suggested that she call a counselor.
Assessments and Recommendations
WWC therapists encounter scenarios similar to those above every day. In fact, they welcome individuals and families with these kinds of concerns and help them to discover positive solutions.
Regarding the counseling cases cited above, WWC therapists would assess the following areas:
- Family history of depression and anxiety – For example, in Case Study II, if lack of sleep and decreased appetite affected Robert’s functioning, his therapist would encourage him to exercise. If Robert’s symptoms persisted, his therapist may refer him to a doctor for a medication evaluation. On the other hand, in Case Study I, Tina’s therapist may refer her to our dietitian for nutritional counseling. At WWC, we evaluate nutritional and exercise regimens and help clients to make better health choices in order to improve brain and physiological functioning.
- Cognitions or how a person thinks – Tina’s thinking about her eating has become obsessive. Whereas, in Case Study III, Martha’s thinking may be too focused on the future and her fears. Clients can learn to modify unhealthy ways of thinking to reduce anxiety.
- Expression of feelings – This is one of the important initial benefits of counseling as therapists encourage clients to talk about their thoughts and express their feelings. Because Robert may not talk about his feelings, he may have a decreased awareness of probable causes of his depressive feelings. Tina’s attention has become so focused on food that she is possibly shutting out her feelings about maturation.
- Relationships and support systems – Positive relationships and social supports promote good mental health. Tina’s family relationships are becoming strained in Case Study I. Too much attention on her food consumption during meal time could be encouraging Tina’s anorexic behavior. Robert needs to take a more serious look at his relationship with his wife since it is probably not as “typical” as he believes. More importantly, improvement in his marital relationship would help to relieve his depressive symptoms. Martha is probably affected by her two older children “leaving the nest” and the prospect of her youngest son leaving home after graduation. Martha’s hesitancy to find a love relationship may have something to do with fear or uneasiness in a past relationship. All these possibilities would be explored in therapy sessions.
- Past and current stress levels – An accumulation of stressful life problems often builds up over time and can result in psychological problems that may affect an individual’s ability to function well at work, school or home.
At some point in your study of psychology, you may be required to write a case study. These are often used in clinical cases or in situations when lab research is not possible or practical. In undergraduate courses, these are often based on a real individual, an imagined individual, or a character from a television show, film, or book.
The specific format for a case study can vary greatly. In some instances, your case study will focus solely on the individual of interest.
Other possible requirements include citing relevant research and background information on a particular topic. Always consult with your instructor for a detailed outline of your assignment.
What Is a Case Study?
A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. Much of Freud's work and theories were developed through the use of individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include Anna O, Phineas Gage, and Genie.
In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. The hope is that learning gained from studying one case can be generalized to many others.
Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective and it is sometimes difficult to generalize results to a larger population.
One of the greatest advantages of a case study is that it allows researchers to investigate things that are often difficult to impossible to replicate in a lab.
The case study of Genie, for example, allowed researchers to study whether language could be taught even after critical periods for language development had been missed.
In Genie's case, her horrific abuse had denied her the opportunity to learn language at critical points in her development. This is clearly not something that researchers could ethically replicate, but conducting a case study on Genie allowed researchers the chance to study otherwise impossible to reproduce phenomena.
There are a few different types of case studies that psychologists and other researchers might utilize:
- Explanatory case studies are often used to do causal investigations. In other words, researchers are interested in looking at factors that may have actually caused certain things to occur.
- Exploratory case studies are sometimes used as a prelude to further, more in-depth research. This allows researchers to gather more information before developing their research questions and hypotheses.
- Descriptive case studies involve starting with a descriptive theory. The subjects are then observed and the information gathered is compared to the pre-existing theory.
- Intrinsic case studies are a type of case study in which the researcher has a personal interest in the case. Jean Piaget's observations of his own children are good examples of how an intrinsic cast study can contribute to the development of a psychological theory.
- Collective case studies involve studying a group of individuals. Researchers might study a group of people in a certain setting or look at an entire community of people.
- Instrumental case studies occur when the individual or group allows researchers to understand more than what is initially obvious to observers.
There are also different methods that can be used to conduct a case study:
- Prospective case study methods are those in which an individual or group of people is observed in order to determine outcomes. For example, a group of individuals might be watched over an extended period of time to observe the progression of a particular disease.
- Retrospective case study methods are those that involve looking at historical information. For example, researchers might start with an outcome, such as a disease, and then work their way backward to look at information about the individuals life to determine risk factors that may have contributed to the onset of the illness.
Sources of Information Used
There are a number of different sources and methods that researchers can use to gather information about an individual or group. The six major sources that have been identified by researchers are:
- Direct observation: This strategy involves observing the subject, often in a natural setting. While an individual observer is sometimes used, it is more common to utilize a group of observers.
- Interviews: One of the most important methods for gathering information in case studies. An interview can involves structured survey-type questions or more open-ended questions.
- Documents: Letters, newspaper articles, administrative records, etc.
- Archival records: Census records, survey records, name lists, etc.
- Physical artifacts: Tools, objects, instruments and other artifacts often observed during a direct observation of the subject.
- Participant observation: Involves the researcher actually serving as a participant in events and observing the actions and outcomes.
Section 1: A Case History
1. Background Information
The first section of your paper will present your client's background. Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses.
2. Description of the Presenting Problem
In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with. Describe any physical, emotional, or sensory symptoms reported by the client. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to the symptoms should also be noted. Any screening or diagnostic assessments that are used should also be described in detail and all scores reported.
3. Your Diagnosis
Provide your diagnosis and give the appropriate Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. Explain how you reached your diagnosis, how the clients symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s), or any possible difficulties in reaching a diagnosis.
Section 2: The Intervention
The second section of your paper will focus on the intervention used to help the client. Your instructor might require you to choose from a particular theoretical approach or ask you to summarize two or more possible treatment approaches.
Some of the possible treatment approaches you might choose to explore include:
1. Psychoanalytic Approach
Describe how a psychoanalytic therapist would view the client's problem. Provide some background on the psychoanalytic approach and cite relevant references. Explain how psychoanalytic therapy would be used to treat the client, how the client would respond to therapy, and the effectiveness of this treatment approach.
2. Cognitive-Behavioral Approach
Explain how a cognitive-behavioral therapist would approach treatment. Offer background information on cognitive-behavioral therapy and describe the treatment sessions, client response, and outcome of this type of treatment. Make note of any difficulties or successes encountered by your client during treatment.
3. Humanistic Approach
Describe a humanistic approach that could be used to treat your client, such as client-centered therapy. Provide information on the type of treatment you chose, the client's reaction to the treatment, and the end result of this approach. Explain why the treatment was successful or unsuccessful.
- Do not refer to the subject of your case study as "the client." Instead, use his or her name or a pseudonym.
- Remember to use APA format when citing references.
- Read examples of case studies to gain and idea about the style and format.
A Word From Verywell
Case studies can be a useful research tool but they need to be used wisely. In many cases, they are best utilized in situations where conducting an experiment would be difficult or impossible. They can be helpful for looking at unique situations and allow researchers to gather a great deal of information about a specific individual or group of people.
If you have been directed to write a case study for a psychology course, be sure to check with your instructor for any specific guidelines that you are required to follow.
Gagnon, YC. The Case Study as a Research Method: A Practical Handbook. Quebec: PUQ; 2010.
Yin, RK. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Sage Publications; 2013.